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Correct the debugger_cls() call to self.debugger_cls() call in TBTools.__init__() so that it doesn't crash when the optionally argument, debugger_cls, is unspecified.
Correct the debugger_cls() call to self.debugger_cls() call in TBTools.__init__() so that it doesn't crash when the optionally argument, debugger_cls, is unspecified.

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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
Verbose and colourful traceback formatting.
I've always found it a bit hard to visually parse tracebacks in Python. The
ColorTB class is a solution to that problem. It colors the different parts of a
traceback in a manner similar to what you would expect from a syntax-highlighting
text editor.
Installation instructions for ColorTB::
import sys,ultratb
sys.excepthook = ultratb.ColorTB()
I've also included a port of Ka-Ping Yee's "cgitb.py" that produces all kinds
of useful info when a traceback occurs. Ping originally had it spit out HTML
and intended it for CGI programmers, but why should they have all the fun? I
altered it to spit out colored text to the terminal. It's a bit overwhelming,
but kind of neat, and maybe useful for long-running programs that you believe
are bug-free. If a crash *does* occur in that type of program you want details.
Give it a shot--you'll love it or you'll hate it.
.. note::
The Verbose mode prints the variables currently visible where the exception
happened (shortening their strings if too long). This can potentially be
very slow, if you happen to have a huge data structure whose string
representation is complex to compute. Your computer may appear to freeze for
a while with cpu usage at 100%. If this occurs, you can cancel the traceback
with Ctrl-C (maybe hitting it more than once).
If you encounter this kind of situation often, you may want to use the
Verbose_novars mode instead of the regular Verbose, which avoids formatting
variables (but otherwise includes the information and context given by
.. note::
The verbose mode print all variables in the stack, which means it can
potentially leak sensitive information like access keys, or unencrypted
Installation instructions for VerboseTB::
import sys,ultratb
sys.excepthook = ultratb.VerboseTB()
Note: Much of the code in this module was lifted verbatim from the standard
library module 'traceback.py' and Ka-Ping Yee's 'cgitb.py'.
Color schemes
The colors are defined in the class TBTools through the use of the
ColorSchemeTable class. Currently the following exist:
- NoColor: allows all of this module to be used in any terminal (the color
escapes are just dummy blank strings).
- Linux: is meant to look good in a terminal like the Linux console (black
or very dark background).
- LightBG: similar to Linux but swaps dark/light colors to be more readable
in light background terminals.
- Neutral: a neutral color scheme that should be readable on both light and
dark background
You can implement other color schemes easily, the syntax is fairly
self-explanatory. Please send back new schemes you develop to the author for
possible inclusion in future releases.
Inheritance diagram:
.. inheritance-diagram:: IPython.core.ultratb
:parts: 3
# Copyright (C) 2001 Nathaniel Gray <n8gray@caltech.edu>
# Copyright (C) 2001-2004 Fernando Perez <fperez@colorado.edu>
# Distributed under the terms of the BSD License. The full license is in
# the file COPYING, distributed as part of this software.
import inspect
import linecache
import pydoc
import sys
import time
import traceback
from types import TracebackType
from typing import Tuple, List, Any, Optional
import stack_data
from pygments.formatters.terminal256 import Terminal256Formatter
from pygments.styles import get_style_by_name
# IPython's own modules
from IPython import get_ipython
from IPython.core import debugger
from IPython.core.display_trap import DisplayTrap
from IPython.core.excolors import exception_colors
from IPython.utils import path as util_path
from IPython.utils import py3compat
from IPython.utils.terminal import get_terminal_size
import IPython.utils.colorable as colorable
# Globals
# amount of space to put line numbers before verbose tracebacks
# Default color scheme. This is used, for example, by the traceback
# formatter. When running in an actual IPython instance, the user's rc.colors
# value is used, but having a module global makes this functionality available
# to users of ultratb who are NOT running inside ipython.
# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Code begins
# Helper function -- largely belongs to VerboseTB, but we need the same
# functionality to produce a pseudo verbose TB for SyntaxErrors, so that they
# can be recognized properly by ipython.el's py-traceback-line-re
# (SyntaxErrors have to be treated specially because they have no traceback)
def _format_traceback_lines(lines, Colors, has_colors: bool, lvals):
Format tracebacks lines with pointing arrow, leading numbers...
lines : list[Line]
ColorScheme used.
lvals : str
Values of local variables, already colored, to inject just after the error line.
numbers_width = INDENT_SIZE - 1
res = []
for stack_line in lines:
if stack_line is stack_data.LINE_GAP:
res.append('%s (...)%s\n' % (Colors.linenoEm, Colors.Normal))
line = stack_line.render(pygmented=has_colors).rstrip('\n') + '\n'
lineno = stack_line.lineno
if stack_line.is_current:
# This is the line with the error
pad = numbers_width - len(str(lineno))
num = '%s%s' % (debugger.make_arrow(pad), str(lineno))
start_color = Colors.linenoEm
num = '%*s' % (numbers_width, lineno)
start_color = Colors.lineno
line = '%s%s%s %s' % (start_color, num, Colors.Normal, line)
if lvals and stack_line.is_current:
res.append(lvals + '\n')
return res
def _format_filename(file, ColorFilename, ColorNormal, *, lineno=None):
Format filename lines with `In [n]` if it's the nth code cell or `File *.py` if it's a module.
file : str
ColorScheme's filename coloring to be used.
ColorScheme's normal coloring to be used.
ipinst = get_ipython()
if ipinst is not None and file in ipinst.compile._filename_map:
file = "[%s]" % ipinst.compile._filename_map[file]
tpl_link = f"Input {ColorFilename}In {{file}}{ColorNormal}"
file = util_path.compress_user(
py3compat.cast_unicode(file, util_path.fs_encoding)
if lineno is None:
tpl_link = f"File {ColorFilename}{{file}}{ColorNormal}"
tpl_link = f"File {ColorFilename}{{file}}:{{lineno}}{ColorNormal}"
return tpl_link.format(file=file, lineno=lineno)
# Module classes
class TBTools(colorable.Colorable):
"""Basic tools used by all traceback printer classes."""
# Number of frames to skip when reporting tracebacks
tb_offset = 0
def __init__(
# Whether to call the interactive pdb debugger after printing
# tracebacks or not
super(TBTools, self).__init__(parent=parent, config=config)
self.call_pdb = call_pdb
# Output stream to write to. Note that we store the original value in
# a private attribute and then make the public ostream a property, so
# that we can delay accessing sys.stdout until runtime. The way
# things are written now, the sys.stdout object is dynamically managed
# so a reference to it should NEVER be stored statically. This
# property approach confines this detail to a single location, and all
# subclasses can simply access self.ostream for writing.
self._ostream = ostream
# Create color table
self.color_scheme_table = exception_colors()
self.old_scheme = color_scheme # save initial value for toggles
self.debugger_cls = debugger_cls or debugger.Pdb
if call_pdb:
self.pdb = self.debugger_cls()
self.pdb = None
def _get_ostream(self):
"""Output stream that exceptions are written to.
Valid values are:
- None: the default, which means that IPython will dynamically resolve
to sys.stdout. This ensures compatibility with most tools, including
Windows (where plain stdout doesn't recognize ANSI escapes).
- Any object with 'write' and 'flush' attributes.
return sys.stdout if self._ostream is None else self._ostream
def _set_ostream(self, val):
assert val is None or (hasattr(val, 'write') and hasattr(val, 'flush'))
self._ostream = val
ostream = property(_get_ostream, _set_ostream)
def _get_chained_exception(exception_value):
cause = getattr(exception_value, "__cause__", None)
if cause:
return cause
if getattr(exception_value, "__suppress_context__", False):
return None
return getattr(exception_value, "__context__", None)
def get_parts_of_chained_exception(
self, evalue
) -> Optional[Tuple[type, BaseException, TracebackType]]:
chained_evalue = self._get_chained_exception(evalue)
if chained_evalue:
return chained_evalue.__class__, chained_evalue, chained_evalue.__traceback__
return None
def prepare_chained_exception_message(self, cause) -> List[Any]:
direct_cause = "\nThe above exception was the direct cause of the following exception:\n"
exception_during_handling = "\nDuring handling of the above exception, another exception occurred:\n"
if cause:
message = [[direct_cause]]
message = [[exception_during_handling]]
return message
def has_colors(self) -> bool:
return self.color_scheme_table.active_scheme_name.lower() != "nocolor"
def set_colors(self, *args, **kw):
"""Shorthand access to the color table scheme selector method."""
# Set own color table
self.color_scheme_table.set_active_scheme(*args, **kw)
# for convenience, set Colors to the active scheme
self.Colors = self.color_scheme_table.active_colors
# Also set colors of debugger
if hasattr(self, 'pdb') and self.pdb is not None:
self.pdb.set_colors(*args, **kw)
def color_toggle(self):
"""Toggle between the currently active color scheme and NoColor."""
if self.color_scheme_table.active_scheme_name == 'NoColor':
self.Colors = self.color_scheme_table.active_colors
self.old_scheme = self.color_scheme_table.active_scheme_name
self.Colors = self.color_scheme_table.active_colors
def stb2text(self, stb):
"""Convert a structured traceback (a list) to a string."""
return '\n'.join(stb)
def text(self, etype, value, tb, tb_offset: Optional[int] = None, context=5):
"""Return formatted traceback.
Subclasses may override this if they add extra arguments.
tb_list = self.structured_traceback(etype, value, tb,
tb_offset, context)
return self.stb2text(tb_list)
def structured_traceback(
self, etype, evalue, tb, tb_offset: Optional[int] = None, context=5, mode=None
"""Return a list of traceback frames.
Must be implemented by each class.
raise NotImplementedError()
class ListTB(TBTools):
"""Print traceback information from a traceback list, with optional color.
Calling requires 3 arguments: (etype, evalue, elist)
as would be obtained by::
etype, evalue, tb = sys.exc_info()
if tb:
elist = traceback.extract_tb(tb)
elist = None
It can thus be used by programs which need to process the traceback before
printing (such as console replacements based on the code module from the
standard library).
Because they are meant to be called without a full traceback (only a
list), instances of this class can't call the interactive pdb debugger."""
def __call__(self, etype, value, elist):
self.ostream.write(self.text(etype, value, elist))
def _extract_tb(self, tb):
if tb:
return traceback.extract_tb(tb)
return None
def structured_traceback(
etype: type,
evalue: BaseException,
etb: Optional[TracebackType] = None,
tb_offset: Optional[int] = None,
"""Return a color formatted string with the traceback info.
etype : exception type
Type of the exception raised.
evalue : object
Data stored in the exception
etb : list | TracebackType | None
If list: List of frames, see class docstring for details.
If Traceback: Traceback of the exception.
tb_offset : int, optional
Number of frames in the traceback to skip. If not given, the
instance evalue is used (set in constructor).
context : int, optional
Number of lines of context information to print.
String with formatted exception.
# This is a workaround to get chained_exc_ids in recursive calls
# etb should not be a tuple if structured_traceback is not recursive
if isinstance(etb, tuple):
etb, chained_exc_ids = etb
chained_exc_ids = set()
if isinstance(etb, list):
elist = etb
elif etb is not None:
elist = self._extract_tb(etb)
elist = []
tb_offset = self.tb_offset if tb_offset is None else tb_offset
assert isinstance(tb_offset, int)
Colors = self.Colors
out_list = []
if elist:
if tb_offset and len(elist) > tb_offset:
elist = elist[tb_offset:]
out_list.append('Traceback %s(most recent call last)%s:' %
(Colors.normalEm, Colors.Normal) + '\n')
# The exception info should be a single entry in the list.
lines = ''.join(self._format_exception_only(etype, evalue))
exception = self.get_parts_of_chained_exception(evalue)
if exception and not id(exception[1]) in chained_exc_ids:
chained_exception_message = self.prepare_chained_exception_message(
etype, evalue, etb = exception
# Trace exception to avoid infinite 'cause' loop
chained_exceptions_tb_offset = 0
out_list = (
etype, evalue, (etb, chained_exc_ids),
chained_exceptions_tb_offset, context)
+ chained_exception_message
+ out_list)
return out_list
def _format_list(self, extracted_list):
"""Format a list of traceback entry tuples for printing.
Given a list of tuples as returned by extract_tb() or
extract_stack(), return a list of strings ready for printing.
Each string in the resulting list corresponds to the item with the
same index in the argument list. Each string ends in a newline;
the strings may contain internal newlines as well, for those items
whose source text line is not None.
Lifted almost verbatim from traceback.py
Colors = self.Colors
list = []
for filename, lineno, name, line in extracted_list[:-1]:
item = " %s in %s%s%s\n" % (
filename, Colors.filename, Colors.Normal, lineno=lineno
if line:
item += ' %s\n' % line.strip()
# Emphasize the last entry
filename, lineno, name, line = extracted_list[-1]
item = "%s %s in %s%s%s%s\n" % (
filename, Colors.filenameEm, Colors.normalEm, lineno=lineno
if line:
item += '%s %s%s\n' % (Colors.line, line.strip(),
return list
def _format_exception_only(self, etype, value):
"""Format the exception part of a traceback.
The arguments are the exception type and value such as given by
sys.exc_info()[:2]. The return value is a list of strings, each ending
in a newline. Normally, the list contains a single string; however,
for SyntaxError exceptions, it contains several lines that (when
printed) display detailed information about where the syntax error
occurred. The message indicating which exception occurred is the
always last string in the list.
Also lifted nearly verbatim from traceback.py
have_filedata = False
Colors = self.Colors
list = []
stype = py3compat.cast_unicode(Colors.excName + etype.__name__ + Colors.Normal)
if value is None:
# Not sure if this can still happen in Python 2.6 and above
list.append(stype + '\n')
if issubclass(etype, SyntaxError):
have_filedata = True
if not value.filename: value.filename = "<string>"
if value.lineno:
lineno = value.lineno
textline = linecache.getline(value.filename, value.lineno)
lineno = "unknown"
textline = ""
"%s %s%s\n"
% (
lineno=(None if lineno == "unknown" else lineno),
if textline == "":
textline = py3compat.cast_unicode(value.text, "utf-8")
if textline is not None:
i = 0
while i < len(textline) and textline[i].isspace():
i += 1
list.append('%s %s%s\n' % (Colors.line,
if value.offset is not None:
s = ' '
for c in textline[i:value.offset - 1]:
if c.isspace():
s += c
s += ' '
list.append('%s%s^%s\n' % (Colors.caret, s,
s = value.msg
except Exception:
s = self._some_str(value)
if s:
list.append('%s%s:%s %s\n' % (stype, Colors.excName,
Colors.Normal, s))
list.append('%s\n' % stype)
# sync with user hooks
if have_filedata:
ipinst = get_ipython()
if ipinst is not None:
ipinst.hooks.synchronize_with_editor(value.filename, value.lineno, 0)
return list
def get_exception_only(self, etype, value):
"""Only print the exception type and message, without a traceback.
etype : exception type
value : exception value
return ListTB.structured_traceback(self, etype, value)
def show_exception_only(self, etype, evalue):
"""Only print the exception type and message, without a traceback.
etype : exception type
evalue : exception value
# This method needs to use __call__ from *this* class, not the one from
# a subclass whose signature or behavior may be different
ostream = self.ostream
ostream.write('\n'.join(self.get_exception_only(etype, evalue)))
def _some_str(self, value):
# Lifted from traceback.py
return py3compat.cast_unicode(str(value))
return u'<unprintable %s object>' % type(value).__name__
class VerboseTB(TBTools):
"""A port of Ka-Ping Yee's cgitb.py module that outputs color text instead
of HTML. Requires inspect and pydoc. Crazy, man.
Modified version which optionally strips the topmost entries from the
traceback, to be used with alternate interpreters (because their own code
would appear in the traceback)."""
def __init__(
color_scheme: str = "Linux",
call_pdb: bool = False,
tb_offset: int = 0,
long_header: bool = False,
include_vars: bool = True,
"""Specify traceback offset, headers and color scheme.
Define how many frames to drop from the tracebacks. Calling it with
tb_offset=1 allows use of this handler in interpreters which will have
their own code at the top of the traceback (VerboseTB will first
remove that frame before printing the traceback info)."""
self.tb_offset = tb_offset
self.long_header = long_header
self.include_vars = include_vars
# By default we use linecache.checkcache, but the user can provide a
# different check_cache implementation. This is used by the IPython
# kernel to provide tracebacks for interactive code that is cached,
# by a compiler instance that flushes the linecache but preserves its
# own code cache.
if check_cache is None:
check_cache = linecache.checkcache
self.check_cache = check_cache
self.skip_hidden = True
def format_record(self, frame_info):
"""Format a single stack frame"""
Colors = self.Colors # just a shorthand + quicker name lookup
ColorsNormal = Colors.Normal # used a lot
if isinstance(frame_info, stack_data.RepeatedFrames):
return ' %s[... skipping similar frames: %s]%s\n' % (
Colors.excName, frame_info.description, ColorsNormal)
indent = " " * INDENT_SIZE
em_normal = "%s\n%s%s" % (Colors.valEm, indent, ColorsNormal)
tpl_call = f"in {Colors.vName}{{file}}{Colors.valEm}{{scope}}{ColorsNormal}"
tpl_call_fail = "in %s%%s%s(***failed resolving arguments***)%s" % (
tpl_name_val = "%%s %s= %%s%s" % (Colors.valEm, ColorsNormal)
link = _format_filename(
args, varargs, varkw, locals_ = inspect.getargvalues(frame_info.frame)
func = frame_info.executing.code_qualname()
if func == "<module>":
call = tpl_call.format(file=func, scope="")
# Decide whether to include variable details or not
var_repr = eqrepr if self.include_vars else nullrepr
scope = inspect.formatargvalues(
args, varargs, varkw, locals_, formatvalue=var_repr
call = tpl_call.format(file=func, scope=scope)
except KeyError:
# This happens in situations like errors inside generator
# expressions, where local variables are listed in the
# line, but can't be extracted from the frame. I'm not
# 100% sure this isn't actually a bug in inspect itself,
# but since there's no info for us to compute with, the
# best we can do is report the failure and move on. Here
# we must *not* call any traceback construction again,
# because that would mess up use of %debug later on. So we
# simply report the failure and move on. The only
# limitation will be that this frame won't have locals
# listed in the call signature. Quite subtle problem...
# I can't think of a good way to validate this in a unit
# test, but running a script consisting of:
# dict( (k,v.strip()) for (k,v) in range(10) )
# will illustrate the error, if this exception catch is
# disabled.
call = tpl_call_fail % func
lvals = ''
lvals_list = []
if self.include_vars:
# we likely want to fix stackdata at some point, but
# still need a workaround.
fibp = frame_info.variables_in_executing_piece
for var in fibp:
lvals_list.append(tpl_name_val % (var.name, repr(var.value)))
except Exception:
"Exception trying to inspect frame. No more locals available."
if lvals_list:
lvals = '%s%s' % (indent, em_normal.join(lvals_list))
result = "%s, %s\n" % (link, call)
result += ''.join(_format_traceback_lines(frame_info.lines, Colors, self.has_colors, lvals))
return result
def prepare_header(self, etype, long_version=False):
colors = self.Colors # just a shorthand + quicker name lookup
colorsnormal = colors.Normal # used a lot
exc = '%s%s%s' % (colors.excName, etype, colorsnormal)
width = min(75, get_terminal_size()[0])
if long_version:
# Header with the exception type, python version, and date
pyver = 'Python ' + sys.version.split()[0] + ': ' + sys.executable
date = time.ctime(time.time())
head = '%s%s%s\n%s%s%s\n%s' % (colors.topline, '-' * width, colorsnormal,
exc, ' ' * (width - len(str(etype)) - len(pyver)),
pyver, date.rjust(width) )
head += "\nA problem occurred executing Python code. Here is the sequence of function" \
"\ncalls leading up to the error, with the most recent (innermost) call last."
# Simplified header
head = '%s%s' % (exc, 'Traceback (most recent call last)'. \
rjust(width - len(str(etype))) )
return head
def format_exception(self, etype, evalue):
colors = self.Colors # just a shorthand + quicker name lookup
colorsnormal = colors.Normal # used a lot
# Get (safely) a string form of the exception info
etype_str, evalue_str = map(str, (etype, evalue))
# User exception is improperly defined.
etype, evalue = str, sys.exc_info()[:2]
etype_str, evalue_str = map(str, (etype, evalue))
# ... and format it
return ['%s%s%s: %s' % (colors.excName, etype_str,
colorsnormal, py3compat.cast_unicode(evalue_str))]
def format_exception_as_a_whole(
etype: type,
evalue: BaseException,
etb: Optional[TracebackType],
tb_offset: Optional[int],
"""Formats the header, traceback and exception message for a single exception.
This may be called multiple times by Python 3 exception chaining
(PEP 3134).
# some locals
orig_etype = etype
etype = etype.__name__
except AttributeError:
tb_offset = self.tb_offset if tb_offset is None else tb_offset
assert isinstance(tb_offset, int)
head = self.prepare_header(etype, self.long_header)
records = (
self.get_records(etb, number_of_lines_of_context, tb_offset) if etb else []
frames = []
skipped = 0
lastrecord = len(records) - 1
for i, r in enumerate(records):
if not isinstance(r, stack_data.RepeatedFrames) and self.skip_hidden:
if r.frame.f_locals.get("__tracebackhide__", 0) and i != lastrecord:
skipped += 1
if skipped:
Colors = self.Colors # just a shorthand + quicker name lookup
ColorsNormal = Colors.Normal # used a lot
" %s[... skipping hidden %s frame]%s\n"
% (Colors.excName, skipped, ColorsNormal)
skipped = 0
if skipped:
Colors = self.Colors # just a shorthand + quicker name lookup
ColorsNormal = Colors.Normal # used a lot
" %s[... skipping hidden %s frame]%s\n"
% (Colors.excName, skipped, ColorsNormal)
formatted_exception = self.format_exception(etype, evalue)
if records:
frame_info = records[-1]
ipinst = get_ipython()
if ipinst is not None:
ipinst.hooks.synchronize_with_editor(frame_info.filename, frame_info.lineno, 0)
return [[head] + frames + [''.join(formatted_exception[0])]]
def get_records(
self, etb: TracebackType, number_of_lines_of_context: int, tb_offset: int
assert etb is not None
context = number_of_lines_of_context - 1
after = context // 2
before = context - after
if self.has_colors:
style = get_style_by_name("default")
style = stack_data.style_with_executing_node(style, "bg:ansiyellow")
formatter = Terminal256Formatter(style=style)
formatter = None
options = stack_data.Options(
return list(stack_data.FrameInfo.stack_data(etb, options=options))[tb_offset:]
def structured_traceback(
etype: type,
evalue: Optional[BaseException],
etb: Optional[TracebackType],
tb_offset: Optional[int] = None,
number_of_lines_of_context: int = 5,
"""Return a nice text document describing the traceback."""
formatted_exception = self.format_exception_as_a_whole(etype, evalue, etb, number_of_lines_of_context,
colors = self.Colors # just a shorthand + quicker name lookup
colorsnormal = colors.Normal # used a lot
head = '%s%s%s' % (colors.topline, '-' * min(75, get_terminal_size()[0]), colorsnormal)
structured_traceback_parts = [head]
chained_exceptions_tb_offset = 0
lines_of_context = 3
formatted_exceptions = formatted_exception
exception = self.get_parts_of_chained_exception(evalue)
if exception:
assert evalue is not None
formatted_exceptions += self.prepare_chained_exception_message(evalue.__cause__)
etype, evalue, etb = exception
evalue = None
chained_exc_ids = set()
while evalue:
formatted_exceptions += self.format_exception_as_a_whole(etype, evalue, etb, lines_of_context,
exception = self.get_parts_of_chained_exception(evalue)
if exception and not id(exception[1]) in chained_exc_ids:
chained_exc_ids.add(id(exception[1])) # trace exception to avoid infinite 'cause' loop
formatted_exceptions += self.prepare_chained_exception_message(evalue.__cause__)
etype, evalue, etb = exception
evalue = None
# we want to see exceptions in a reversed order:
# the first exception should be on top
for formatted_exception in reversed(formatted_exceptions):
structured_traceback_parts += formatted_exception
return structured_traceback_parts
def debugger(self, force: bool = False):
"""Call up the pdb debugger if desired, always clean up the tb
- force(False): by default, this routine checks the instance call_pdb
flag and does not actually invoke the debugger if the flag is false.
The 'force' option forces the debugger to activate even if the flag
is false.
If the call_pdb flag is set, the pdb interactive debugger is
invoked. In all cases, the self.tb reference to the current traceback
is deleted to prevent lingering references which hamper memory
Note that each call to pdb() does an 'import readline', so if your app
requires a special setup for the readline completers, you'll have to
fix that by hand after invoking the exception handler."""
if force or self.call_pdb:
if self.pdb is None:
self.pdb = self.debugger_cls()
# the system displayhook may have changed, restore the original
# for pdb
display_trap = DisplayTrap(hook=sys.__displayhook__)
with display_trap:
# Find the right frame so we don't pop up inside ipython itself
if hasattr(self, 'tb') and self.tb is not None:
etb = self.tb
etb = self.tb = sys.last_traceback
while self.tb is not None and self.tb.tb_next is not None:
assert self.tb.tb_next is not None
self.tb = self.tb.tb_next
if etb and etb.tb_next:
etb = etb.tb_next
self.pdb.botframe = etb.tb_frame
self.pdb.interaction(None, etb)
if hasattr(self, 'tb'):
del self.tb
def handler(self, info=None):
(etype, evalue, etb) = info or sys.exc_info()
self.tb = etb
ostream = self.ostream
ostream.write(self.text(etype, evalue, etb))
# Changed so an instance can just be called as VerboseTB_inst() and print
# out the right info on its own.
def __call__(self, etype=None, evalue=None, etb=None):
"""This hook can replace sys.excepthook (for Python 2.1 or higher)."""
if etb is None:
self.handler((etype, evalue, etb))
except KeyboardInterrupt:
class FormattedTB(VerboseTB, ListTB):
"""Subclass ListTB but allow calling with a traceback.
It can thus be used as a sys.excepthook for Python > 2.1.
Also adds 'Context' and 'Verbose' modes, not available in ListTB.
Allows a tb_offset to be specified. This is useful for situations where
one needs to remove a number of topmost frames from the traceback (such as
occurs with python programs that themselves execute other python code,
like Python shells). """
mode: str
def __init__(self, mode='Plain', color_scheme='Linux', call_pdb=False,
tb_offset=0, long_header=False, include_vars=False,
check_cache=None, debugger_cls=None,
parent=None, config=None):
# NEVER change the order of this list. Put new modes at the end:
self.valid_modes = ['Plain', 'Context', 'Verbose', 'Minimal']
self.verbose_modes = self.valid_modes[1:3]
VerboseTB.__init__(self, color_scheme=color_scheme, call_pdb=call_pdb,
ostream=ostream, tb_offset=tb_offset,
long_header=long_header, include_vars=include_vars,
check_cache=check_cache, debugger_cls=debugger_cls,
parent=parent, config=config)
# Different types of tracebacks are joined with different separators to
# form a single string. They are taken from this dict
self._join_chars = dict(Plain='', Context='\n', Verbose='\n',
# set_mode also sets the tb_join_char attribute
def structured_traceback(self, etype, value, tb, tb_offset=None, number_of_lines_of_context=5):
tb_offset = self.tb_offset if tb_offset is None else tb_offset
mode = self.mode
if mode in self.verbose_modes:
# Verbose modes need a full traceback
return VerboseTB.structured_traceback(
self, etype, value, tb, tb_offset, number_of_lines_of_context
elif mode == 'Minimal':
return ListTB.get_exception_only(self, etype, value)
# We must check the source cache because otherwise we can print
# out-of-date source code.
# Now we can extract and format the exception
return ListTB.structured_traceback(
self, etype, value, tb, tb_offset, number_of_lines_of_context
def stb2text(self, stb):
"""Convert a structured traceback (a list) to a string."""
return self.tb_join_char.join(stb)
def set_mode(self, mode: Optional[str] = None):
"""Switch to the desired mode.
If mode is not specified, cycles through the available modes."""
if not mode:
new_idx = (self.valid_modes.index(self.mode) + 1 ) % \
self.mode = self.valid_modes[new_idx]
elif mode not in self.valid_modes:
raise ValueError(
"Unrecognized mode in FormattedTB: <" + mode + ">\n"
"Valid modes: " + str(self.valid_modes)
assert isinstance(mode, str)
self.mode = mode
# include variable details only in 'Verbose' mode
self.include_vars = (self.mode == self.valid_modes[2])
# Set the join character for generating text tracebacks
self.tb_join_char = self._join_chars[self.mode]
# some convenient shortcuts
def plain(self):
def context(self):
def verbose(self):
def minimal(self):
class AutoFormattedTB(FormattedTB):
"""A traceback printer which can be called on the fly.
It will find out about exceptions by itself.
A brief example::
AutoTB = AutoFormattedTB(mode = 'Verbose',color_scheme='Linux')
AutoTB() # or AutoTB(out=logfile) where logfile is an open file object
def __call__(self, etype=None, evalue=None, etb=None,
out=None, tb_offset=None):
"""Print out a formatted exception traceback.
Optional arguments:
- out: an open file-like object to direct output to.
- tb_offset: the number of frames to skip over in the stack, on a
per-call basis (this overrides temporarily the instance's tb_offset
given at initialization time."""
if out is None:
out = self.ostream
out.write(self.text(etype, evalue, etb, tb_offset))
# FIXME: we should remove the auto pdb behavior from here and leave
# that to the clients.
except KeyboardInterrupt:
def structured_traceback(self, etype=None, value=None, tb=None,
tb_offset=None, number_of_lines_of_context=5):
etype: type
value: BaseException
# tb: TracebackType or tupleof tb types ?
if etype is None:
etype, value, tb = sys.exc_info()
if isinstance(tb, tuple):
# tb is a tuple if this is a chained exception.
self.tb = tb[0]
self.tb = tb
return FormattedTB.structured_traceback(
self, etype, value, tb, tb_offset, number_of_lines_of_context)
# A simple class to preserve Nathan's original functionality.
class ColorTB(FormattedTB):
"""Shorthand to initialize a FormattedTB in Linux colors mode."""
def __init__(self, color_scheme='Linux', call_pdb=0, **kwargs):
FormattedTB.__init__(self, color_scheme=color_scheme,
call_pdb=call_pdb, **kwargs)
class SyntaxTB(ListTB):
"""Extension which holds some state: the last exception value"""
def __init__(self, color_scheme='NoColor', parent=None, config=None):
ListTB.__init__(self, color_scheme, parent=parent, config=config)
self.last_syntax_error = None
def __call__(self, etype, value, elist):
self.last_syntax_error = value
ListTB.__call__(self, etype, value, elist)
def structured_traceback(self, etype, value, elist, tb_offset=None,
# If the source file has been edited, the line in the syntax error can
# be wrong (retrieved from an outdated cache). This replaces it with
# the current value.
if isinstance(value, SyntaxError) \
and isinstance(value.filename, str) \
and isinstance(value.lineno, int):
newtext = linecache.getline(value.filename, value.lineno)
if newtext:
value.text = newtext
self.last_syntax_error = value
return super(SyntaxTB, self).structured_traceback(etype, value, elist,
tb_offset=tb_offset, context=context)
def clear_err_state(self):
"""Return the current error state and clear it"""
e = self.last_syntax_error
self.last_syntax_error = None
return e
def stb2text(self, stb):
"""Convert a structured traceback (a list) to a string."""
return ''.join(stb)
# some internal-use functions
def text_repr(value):
"""Hopefully pretty robust repr equivalent."""
# this is pretty horrible but should always return *something*
return pydoc.text.repr(value)
except KeyboardInterrupt:
return repr(value)
except KeyboardInterrupt:
# all still in an except block so we catch
# getattr raising
name = getattr(value, '__name__', None)
if name:
# ick, recursion
return text_repr(name)
klass = getattr(value, '__class__', None)
if klass:
return '%s instance' % text_repr(klass)
except KeyboardInterrupt:
def eqrepr(value, repr=text_repr):
return '=%s' % repr(value)
def nullrepr(value, repr=text_repr):
return ''