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Merge pull request #13213 from Kojoley/fix-bunch-of-doctests...
Merge pull request #13213 from Kojoley/fix-bunch-of-doctests Fix bunch of doctests

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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""Top-level display functions for displaying object in different formats."""
# Copyright (c) IPython Development Team.
# Distributed under the terms of the Modified BSD License.
from binascii import b2a_hex
import os
import sys
__all__ = ['display', 'clear_output', 'publish_display_data', 'update_display', 'DisplayHandle']
# utility functions
def _merge(d1, d2):
"""Like update, but merges sub-dicts instead of clobbering at the top level.
Updates d1 in-place
if not isinstance(d2, dict) or not isinstance(d1, dict):
return d2
for key, value in d2.items():
d1[key] = _merge(d1.get(key), value)
return d1
# Main functions
# use * to indicate transient is keyword-only
def publish_display_data(data, metadata=None, source=None, *, transient=None, **kwargs):
"""Publish data and metadata to all frontends.
See the ``display_data`` message in the messaging documentation for
more details about this message type.
Keys of data and metadata can be any mime-type.
data : dict
A dictionary having keys that are valid MIME types (like
'text/plain' or 'image/svg+xml') and values that are the data for
that MIME type. The data itself must be a JSON'able data
structure. Minimally all data should have the 'text/plain' data,
which can be displayed by all frontends. If more than the plain
text is given, it is up to the frontend to decide which
representation to use.
metadata : dict
A dictionary for metadata related to the data. This can contain
arbitrary key, value pairs that frontends can use to interpret
the data. mime-type keys matching those in data can be used
to specify metadata about particular representations.
source : str, deprecated
transient : dict, keyword-only
A dictionary of transient data, such as display_id.
from IPython.core.interactiveshell import InteractiveShell
display_pub = InteractiveShell.instance().display_pub
# only pass transient if supplied,
# to avoid errors with older ipykernel.
# TODO: We could check for ipykernel version and provide a detailed upgrade message.
if transient:
kwargs['transient'] = transient
def _new_id():
"""Generate a new random text id with urandom"""
return b2a_hex(os.urandom(16)).decode('ascii')
def display(
"""Display a Python object in all frontends.
By default all representations will be computed and sent to the frontends.
Frontends can decide which representation is used and how.
In terminal IPython this will be similar to using :func:`print`, for use in richer
frontends see Jupyter notebook examples with rich display logic.
*objs : object
The Python objects to display.
raw : bool, optional
Are the objects to be displayed already mimetype-keyed dicts of raw display data,
or Python objects that need to be formatted before display? [default: False]
include : list, tuple or set, optional
A list of format type strings (MIME types) to include in the
format data dict. If this is set *only* the format types included
in this list will be computed.
exclude : list, tuple or set, optional
A list of format type strings (MIME types) to exclude in the format
data dict. If this is set all format types will be computed,
except for those included in this argument.
metadata : dict, optional
A dictionary of metadata to associate with the output.
mime-type keys in this dictionary will be associated with the individual
representation formats, if they exist.
transient : dict, optional
A dictionary of transient data to associate with the output.
Data in this dict should not be persisted to files (e.g. notebooks).
display_id : str, bool optional
Set an id for the display.
This id can be used for updating this display area later via update_display.
If given as `True`, generate a new `display_id`
clear : bool, optional
Should the output area be cleared before displaying anything? If True,
this will wait for additional output before clearing. [default: False]
**kwargs : additional keyword-args, optional
Additional keyword-arguments are passed through to the display publisher.
handle: DisplayHandle
Returns a handle on updatable displays for use with :func:`update_display`,
if `display_id` is given. Returns :any:`None` if no `display_id` is given
>>> class Json(object):
... def __init__(self, json):
... self.json = json
... def _repr_pretty_(self, pp, cycle):
... import json
... pp.text(json.dumps(self.json, indent=2))
... def __repr__(self):
... return str(self.json)
>>> d = Json({1:2, 3: {4:5}})
>>> print(d)
{1: 2, 3: {4: 5}}
>>> display(d)
"1": 2,
"3": {
"4": 5
>>> def int_formatter(integer, pp, cycle):
... pp.text('I'*integer)
>>> plain = get_ipython().display_formatter.formatters['text/plain']
>>> plain.for_type(int, int_formatter)
<function _repr_pprint at 0x...>
>>> display(7-5)
>>> del plain.type_printers[int]
>>> display(7-5)
See Also
In Python, objects can declare their textual representation using the
`__repr__` method. IPython expands on this idea and allows objects to declare
other, rich representations including:
- LaTeX
A single object can declare some or all of these representations; all are
handled by IPython's display system.
The main idea of the first approach is that you have to implement special
display methods when you define your class, one for each representation you
want to use. Here is a list of the names of the special methods and the
values they must return:
- `_repr_html_`: return raw HTML as a string, or a tuple (see below).
- `_repr_json_`: return a JSONable dict, or a tuple (see below).
- `_repr_jpeg_`: return raw JPEG data, or a tuple (see below).
- `_repr_png_`: return raw PNG data, or a tuple (see below).
- `_repr_svg_`: return raw SVG data as a string, or a tuple (see below).
- `_repr_latex_`: return LaTeX commands in a string surrounded by "$",
or a tuple (see below).
- `_repr_mimebundle_`: return a full mimebundle containing the mapping
from all mimetypes to data.
Use this for any mime-type not listed above.
The above functions may also return the object's metadata alonside the
data. If the metadata is available, the functions will return a tuple
containing the data and metadata, in that order. If there is no metadata
available, then the functions will return the data only.
When you are directly writing your own classes, you can adapt them for
display in IPython by following the above approach. But in practice, you
often need to work with existing classes that you can't easily modify.
You can refer to the documentation on integrating with the display system in
order to register custom formatters for already existing types
.. versionadded:: 5.4 display available without import
.. versionadded:: 6.1 display available without import
Since IPython 5.4 and 6.1 :func:`display` is automatically made available to
the user without import. If you are using display in a document that might
be used in a pure python context or with older version of IPython, use the
following import at the top of your file::
from IPython.display import display
from IPython.core.interactiveshell import InteractiveShell
if not InteractiveShell.initialized():
# Directly print objects.
if transient is None:
transient = {}
if metadata is None:
if display_id:
if display_id is True:
display_id = _new_id()
transient['display_id'] = display_id
if kwargs.get('update') and 'display_id' not in transient:
raise TypeError('display_id required for update_display')
if transient:
kwargs['transient'] = transient
if not objs and display_id:
# if given no objects, but still a request for a display_id,
# we assume the user wants to insert an empty output that
# can be updated later
objs = [{}]
raw = True
if not raw:
format = InteractiveShell.instance().display_formatter.format
if clear:
for obj in objs:
if raw:
publish_display_data(data=obj, metadata=metadata, **kwargs)
format_dict, md_dict = format(obj, include=include, exclude=exclude)
if not format_dict:
# nothing to display (e.g. _ipython_display_ took over)
if metadata:
# kwarg-specified metadata gets precedence
_merge(md_dict, metadata)
publish_display_data(data=format_dict, metadata=md_dict, **kwargs)
if display_id:
return DisplayHandle(display_id)
# use * for keyword-only display_id arg
def update_display(obj, *, display_id, **kwargs):
"""Update an existing display by id
The object with which to update the display
display_id : keyword-only
The id of the display to update
See Also
kwargs['update'] = True
display(obj, display_id=display_id, **kwargs)
class DisplayHandle(object):
"""A handle on an updatable display
Call `.update(obj)` to display a new object.
Call `.display(obj`) to add a new instance of this display,
and update existing instances.
See Also
:func:`display`, :func:`update_display`
def __init__(self, display_id=None):
if display_id is None:
display_id = _new_id()
self.display_id = display_id
def __repr__(self):
return "<%s display_id=%s>" % (self.__class__.__name__, self.display_id)
def display(self, obj, **kwargs):
"""Make a new display with my id, updating existing instances.
object to display
additional keyword arguments passed to display
display(obj, display_id=self.display_id, **kwargs)
def update(self, obj, **kwargs):
"""Update existing displays with my id
object to display
additional keyword arguments passed to update_display
update_display(obj, display_id=self.display_id, **kwargs)
def clear_output(wait=False):
"""Clear the output of the current cell receiving output.
wait : bool [default: false]
Wait to clear the output until new output is available to replace it."""
from IPython.core.interactiveshell import InteractiveShell
if InteractiveShell.initialized():
print('\033[2K\r', end='')
print('\033[2K\r', end='')