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iplib.py
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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""
IPython -- An enhanced Interactive Python
Requires Python 2.3 or newer.
This file contains all the classes and helper functions specific to IPython.
$Id: iplib.py 1885 2006-11-08 01:07:28Z fperez $
"""
#*****************************************************************************
# Copyright (C) 2001 Janko Hauser <jhauser@zscout.de> and
# Copyright (C) 2001-2006 Fernando Perez. <fperez@colorado.edu>
#
# Distributed under the terms of the BSD License. The full license is in
# the file COPYING, distributed as part of this software.
#
# Note: this code originally subclassed code.InteractiveConsole from the
# Python standard library. Over time, all of that class has been copied
# verbatim here for modifications which could not be accomplished by
# subclassing. At this point, there are no dependencies at all on the code
# module anymore (it is not even imported). The Python License (sec. 2)
# allows for this, but it's always nice to acknowledge credit where credit is
# due.
#*****************************************************************************
#****************************************************************************
# Modules and globals
from IPython import Release
__author__ = '%s <%s>\n%s <%s>' % \
( Release.authors['Janko'] + Release.authors['Fernando'] )
__license__ = Release.license
__version__ = Release.version
# Python standard modules
import __main__
import __builtin__
import StringIO
import bdb
import cPickle as pickle
import codeop
import exceptions
import glob
import inspect
import keyword
import new
import os
import pydoc
import re
import shutil
import string
import sys
import tempfile
import traceback
import types
import pickleshare
from sets import Set
from pprint import pprint, pformat
# IPython's own modules
import IPython
from IPython import OInspect,PyColorize,ultraTB
from IPython.ColorANSI import ColorScheme,ColorSchemeTable # too long names
from IPython.FakeModule import FakeModule
from IPython.Itpl import Itpl,itpl,printpl,ItplNS,itplns
from IPython.Logger import Logger
from IPython.Magic import Magic
from IPython.Prompts import CachedOutput
from IPython.ipstruct import Struct
from IPython.background_jobs import BackgroundJobManager
from IPython.usage import cmd_line_usage,interactive_usage
from IPython.genutils import *
from IPython.strdispatch import StrDispatch
import IPython.ipapi
# Globals
# store the builtin raw_input globally, and use this always, in case user code
# overwrites it (like wx.py.PyShell does)
raw_input_original = raw_input
# compiled regexps for autoindent management
dedent_re = re.compile(r'^\s+raise|^\s+return|^\s+pass')
#****************************************************************************
# Some utility function definitions
ini_spaces_re = re.compile(r'^(\s+)')
def num_ini_spaces(strng):
"""Return the number of initial spaces in a string"""
ini_spaces = ini_spaces_re.match(strng)
if ini_spaces:
return ini_spaces.end()
else:
return 0
def softspace(file, newvalue):
"""Copied from code.py, to remove the dependency"""
oldvalue = 0
try:
oldvalue = file.softspace
except AttributeError:
pass
try:
file.softspace = newvalue
except (AttributeError, TypeError):
# "attribute-less object" or "read-only attributes"
pass
return oldvalue
#****************************************************************************
# Local use exceptions
class SpaceInInput(exceptions.Exception): pass
#****************************************************************************
# Local use classes
class Bunch: pass
class Undefined: pass
class Quitter(object):
"""Simple class to handle exit, similar to Python 2.5's.
It handles exiting in an ipython-safe manner, which the one in Python 2.5
doesn't do (obviously, since it doesn't know about ipython)."""
def __init__(self,shell,name):
self.shell = shell
self.name = name
def __repr__(self):
return 'Type %s() to exit.' % self.name
__str__ = __repr__
def __call__(self):
self.shell.exit()
class InputList(list):
"""Class to store user input.
It's basically a list, but slices return a string instead of a list, thus
allowing things like (assuming 'In' is an instance):
exec In[4:7]
or
exec In[5:9] + In[14] + In[21:25]"""
def __getslice__(self,i,j):
return ''.join(list.__getslice__(self,i,j))
class SyntaxTB(ultraTB.ListTB):
"""Extension which holds some state: the last exception value"""
def __init__(self,color_scheme = 'NoColor'):
ultraTB.ListTB.__init__(self,color_scheme)
self.last_syntax_error = None
def __call__(self, etype, value, elist):
self.last_syntax_error = value
ultraTB.ListTB.__call__(self,etype,value,elist)
def clear_err_state(self):
"""Return the current error state and clear it"""
e = self.last_syntax_error
self.last_syntax_error = None
return e
#****************************************************************************
# Main IPython class
# FIXME: the Magic class is a mixin for now, and will unfortunately remain so
# until a full rewrite is made. I've cleaned all cross-class uses of
# attributes and methods, but too much user code out there relies on the
# equlity %foo == __IP.magic_foo, so I can't actually remove the mixin usage.
#
# But at least now, all the pieces have been separated and we could, in
# principle, stop using the mixin. This will ease the transition to the
# chainsaw branch.
# For reference, the following is the list of 'self.foo' uses in the Magic
# class as of 2005-12-28. These are names we CAN'T use in the main ipython
# class, to prevent clashes.
# ['self.__class__', 'self.__dict__', 'self._inspect', 'self._ofind',
# 'self.arg_err', 'self.extract_input', 'self.format_', 'self.lsmagic',
# 'self.magic_', 'self.options_table', 'self.parse', 'self.shell',
# 'self.value']
class InteractiveShell(object,Magic):
"""An enhanced console for Python."""
# class attribute to indicate whether the class supports threads or not.
# Subclasses with thread support should override this as needed.
isthreaded = False
def __init__(self,name,usage=None,rc=Struct(opts=None,args=None),
user_ns = None,user_global_ns=None,banner2='',
custom_exceptions=((),None),embedded=False):
# log system
self.logger = Logger(self,logfname='ipython_log.py',logmode='rotate')
# some minimal strict typechecks. For some core data structures, I
# want actual basic python types, not just anything that looks like
# one. This is especially true for namespaces.
for ns in (user_ns,user_global_ns):
if ns is not None and type(ns) != types.DictType:
raise TypeError,'namespace must be a dictionary'
# Job manager (for jobs run as background threads)
self.jobs = BackgroundJobManager()
# Store the actual shell's name
self.name = name
# We need to know whether the instance is meant for embedding, since
# global/local namespaces need to be handled differently in that case
self.embedded = embedded
# command compiler
self.compile = codeop.CommandCompiler()
# User input buffer
self.buffer = []
# Default name given in compilation of code
self.filename = '<ipython console>'
# Install our own quitter instead of the builtins. For python2.3-2.4,
# this brings in behavior like 2.5, and for 2.5 it's identical.
__builtin__.exit = Quitter(self,'exit')
__builtin__.quit = Quitter(self,'quit')
# Make an empty namespace, which extension writers can rely on both
# existing and NEVER being used by ipython itself. This gives them a
# convenient location for storing additional information and state
# their extensions may require, without fear of collisions with other
# ipython names that may develop later.
self.meta = Struct()
# Create the namespace where the user will operate. user_ns is
# normally the only one used, and it is passed to the exec calls as
# the locals argument. But we do carry a user_global_ns namespace
# given as the exec 'globals' argument, This is useful in embedding
# situations where the ipython shell opens in a context where the
# distinction between locals and globals is meaningful.
# FIXME. For some strange reason, __builtins__ is showing up at user
# level as a dict instead of a module. This is a manual fix, but I
# should really track down where the problem is coming from. Alex
# Schmolck reported this problem first.
# A useful post by Alex Martelli on this topic:
# Re: inconsistent value from __builtins__
# Von: Alex Martelli <aleaxit@yahoo.com>
# Datum: Freitag 01 Oktober 2004 04:45:34 nachmittags/abends
# Gruppen: comp.lang.python
# Michael Hohn <hohn@hooknose.lbl.gov> wrote:
# > >>> print type(builtin_check.get_global_binding('__builtins__'))
# > <type 'dict'>
# > >>> print type(__builtins__)
# > <type 'module'>
# > Is this difference in return value intentional?
# Well, it's documented that '__builtins__' can be either a dictionary
# or a module, and it's been that way for a long time. Whether it's
# intentional (or sensible), I don't know. In any case, the idea is
# that if you need to access the built-in namespace directly, you
# should start with "import __builtin__" (note, no 's') which will
# definitely give you a module. Yeah, it's somewhat confusing:-(.
# These routines return properly built dicts as needed by the rest of
# the code, and can also be used by extension writers to generate
# properly initialized namespaces.
user_ns = IPython.ipapi.make_user_ns(user_ns)
user_global_ns = IPython.ipapi.make_user_global_ns(user_global_ns)
# Assign namespaces
# This is the namespace where all normal user variables live
self.user_ns = user_ns
# Embedded instances require a separate namespace for globals.
# Normally this one is unused by non-embedded instances.
self.user_global_ns = user_global_ns
# A namespace to keep track of internal data structures to prevent
# them from cluttering user-visible stuff. Will be updated later
self.internal_ns = {}
# Namespace of system aliases. Each entry in the alias
# table must be a 2-tuple of the form (N,name), where N is the number
# of positional arguments of the alias.
self.alias_table = {}
# A table holding all the namespaces IPython deals with, so that
# introspection facilities can search easily.
self.ns_table = {'user':user_ns,
'user_global':user_global_ns,
'alias':self.alias_table,
'internal':self.internal_ns,
'builtin':__builtin__.__dict__
}
# The user namespace MUST have a pointer to the shell itself.
self.user_ns[name] = self
# We need to insert into sys.modules something that looks like a
# module but which accesses the IPython namespace, for shelve and
# pickle to work interactively. Normally they rely on getting
# everything out of __main__, but for embedding purposes each IPython
# instance has its own private namespace, so we can't go shoving
# everything into __main__.
# note, however, that we should only do this for non-embedded
# ipythons, which really mimic the __main__.__dict__ with their own
# namespace. Embedded instances, on the other hand, should not do
# this because they need to manage the user local/global namespaces
# only, but they live within a 'normal' __main__ (meaning, they
# shouldn't overtake the execution environment of the script they're
# embedded in).
if not embedded:
try:
main_name = self.user_ns['__name__']
except KeyError:
raise KeyError,'user_ns dictionary MUST have a "__name__" key'
else:
#print "pickle hack in place" # dbg
#print 'main_name:',main_name # dbg
sys.modules[main_name] = FakeModule(self.user_ns)
# List of input with multi-line handling.
# Fill its zero entry, user counter starts at 1
self.input_hist = InputList(['\n'])
# This one will hold the 'raw' input history, without any
# pre-processing. This will allow users to retrieve the input just as
# it was exactly typed in by the user, with %hist -r.
self.input_hist_raw = InputList(['\n'])
# list of visited directories
try:
self.dir_hist = [os.getcwd()]
except IOError, e:
self.dir_hist = []
# dict of output history
self.output_hist = {}
# dict of things NOT to alias (keywords, builtins and some magics)
no_alias = {}
no_alias_magics = ['cd','popd','pushd','dhist','alias','unalias']
for key in keyword.kwlist + no_alias_magics:
no_alias[key] = 1
no_alias.update(__builtin__.__dict__)
self.no_alias = no_alias
# make global variables for user access to these
self.user_ns['_ih'] = self.input_hist
self.user_ns['_oh'] = self.output_hist
self.user_ns['_dh'] = self.dir_hist
# user aliases to input and output histories
self.user_ns['In'] = self.input_hist
self.user_ns['Out'] = self.output_hist
# Object variable to store code object waiting execution. This is
# used mainly by the multithreaded shells, but it can come in handy in
# other situations. No need to use a Queue here, since it's a single
# item which gets cleared once run.
self.code_to_run = None
# escapes for automatic behavior on the command line
self.ESC_SHELL = '!'
self.ESC_HELP = '?'
self.ESC_MAGIC = '%'
self.ESC_QUOTE = ','
self.ESC_QUOTE2 = ';'
self.ESC_PAREN = '/'
# And their associated handlers
self.esc_handlers = {self.ESC_PAREN : self.handle_auto,
self.ESC_QUOTE : self.handle_auto,
self.ESC_QUOTE2 : self.handle_auto,
self.ESC_MAGIC : self.handle_magic,
self.ESC_HELP : self.handle_help,
self.ESC_SHELL : self.handle_shell_escape,
}
# class initializations
Magic.__init__(self,self)
# Python source parser/formatter for syntax highlighting
pyformat = PyColorize.Parser().format
self.pycolorize = lambda src: pyformat(src,'str',self.rc['colors'])
# hooks holds pointers used for user-side customizations
self.hooks = Struct()
self.strdispatchers = {}
# Set all default hooks, defined in the IPython.hooks module.
hooks = IPython.hooks
for hook_name in hooks.__all__:
# default hooks have priority 100, i.e. low; user hooks should have 0-100 priority
self.set_hook(hook_name,getattr(hooks,hook_name), 100)
#print "bound hook",hook_name
# Flag to mark unconditional exit
self.exit_now = False
self.usage_min = """\
An enhanced console for Python.
Some of its features are:
- Readline support if the readline library is present.
- Tab completion in the local namespace.
- Logging of input, see command-line options.
- System shell escape via ! , eg !ls.
- Magic commands, starting with a % (like %ls, %pwd, %cd, etc.)
- Keeps track of locally defined variables via %who, %whos.
- Show object information with a ? eg ?x or x? (use ?? for more info).
"""
if usage: self.usage = usage
else: self.usage = self.usage_min
# Storage
self.rc = rc # This will hold all configuration information
self.pager = 'less'
# temporary files used for various purposes. Deleted at exit.
self.tempfiles = []
# Keep track of readline usage (later set by init_readline)
self.has_readline = False
# template for logfile headers. It gets resolved at runtime by the
# logstart method.
self.loghead_tpl = \
"""#log# Automatic Logger file. *** THIS MUST BE THE FIRST LINE ***
#log# DO NOT CHANGE THIS LINE OR THE TWO BELOW
#log# opts = %s
#log# args = %s
#log# It is safe to make manual edits below here.
#log#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
"""
# for pushd/popd management
try:
self.home_dir = get_home_dir()
except HomeDirError,msg:
fatal(msg)
self.dir_stack = [os.getcwd().replace(self.home_dir,'~')]
# Functions to call the underlying shell.
# The first is similar to os.system, but it doesn't return a value,
# and it allows interpolation of variables in the user's namespace.
self.system = lambda cmd: \
shell(self.var_expand(cmd,depth=2),
header=self.rc.system_header,
verbose=self.rc.system_verbose)
# These are for getoutput and getoutputerror:
self.getoutput = lambda cmd: \
getoutput(self.var_expand(cmd,depth=2),
header=self.rc.system_header,
verbose=self.rc.system_verbose)
self.getoutputerror = lambda cmd: \
getoutputerror(self.var_expand(cmd,depth=2),
header=self.rc.system_header,
verbose=self.rc.system_verbose)
# RegExp for splitting line contents into pre-char//first
# word-method//rest. For clarity, each group in on one line.
# WARNING: update the regexp if the above escapes are changed, as they
# are hardwired in.
# Don't get carried away with trying to make the autocalling catch too
# much: it's better to be conservative rather than to trigger hidden
# evals() somewhere and end up causing side effects.
self.line_split = re.compile(r'^([\s*,;/])'
r'([\?\w\.]+\w*\s*)'
r'(\(?.*$)')
# Original re, keep around for a while in case changes break something
#self.line_split = re.compile(r'(^[\s*!\?%,/]?)'
# r'(\s*[\?\w\.]+\w*\s*)'
# r'(\(?.*$)')
# RegExp to identify potential function names
self.re_fun_name = re.compile(r'[a-zA-Z_]([a-zA-Z0-9_.]*) *$')
# RegExp to exclude strings with this start from autocalling. In
# particular, all binary operators should be excluded, so that if foo
# is callable, foo OP bar doesn't become foo(OP bar), which is
# invalid. The characters '!=()' don't need to be checked for, as the
# _prefilter routine explicitely does so, to catch direct calls and
# rebindings of existing names.
# Warning: the '-' HAS TO BE AT THE END of the first group, otherwise
# it affects the rest of the group in square brackets.
self.re_exclude_auto = re.compile(r'^[<>,&^\|\*/\+-]'
'|^is |^not |^in |^and |^or ')
# try to catch also methods for stuff in lists/tuples/dicts: off
# (experimental). For this to work, the line_split regexp would need
# to be modified so it wouldn't break things at '['. That line is
# nasty enough that I shouldn't change it until I can test it _well_.
#self.re_fun_name = re.compile (r'[a-zA-Z_]([a-zA-Z0-9_.\[\]]*) ?$')
# keep track of where we started running (mainly for crash post-mortem)
self.starting_dir = os.getcwd()
# Various switches which can be set
self.CACHELENGTH = 5000 # this is cheap, it's just text
self.BANNER = "Python %(version)s on %(platform)s\n" % sys.__dict__
self.banner2 = banner2
# TraceBack handlers:
# Syntax error handler.
self.SyntaxTB = SyntaxTB(color_scheme='NoColor')
# The interactive one is initialized with an offset, meaning we always
# want to remove the topmost item in the traceback, which is our own
# internal code. Valid modes: ['Plain','Context','Verbose']
self.InteractiveTB = ultraTB.AutoFormattedTB(mode = 'Plain',
color_scheme='NoColor',
tb_offset = 1)
# IPython itself shouldn't crash. This will produce a detailed
# post-mortem if it does. But we only install the crash handler for
# non-threaded shells, the threaded ones use a normal verbose reporter
# and lose the crash handler. This is because exceptions in the main
# thread (such as in GUI code) propagate directly to sys.excepthook,
# and there's no point in printing crash dumps for every user exception.
if self.isthreaded:
ipCrashHandler = ultraTB.FormattedTB()
else:
from IPython import CrashHandler
ipCrashHandler = CrashHandler.IPythonCrashHandler(self)
self.set_crash_handler(ipCrashHandler)
# and add any custom exception handlers the user may have specified
self.set_custom_exc(*custom_exceptions)
# indentation management
self.autoindent = False
self.indent_current_nsp = 0
# Make some aliases automatically
# Prepare list of shell aliases to auto-define
if os.name == 'posix':
auto_alias = ('mkdir mkdir', 'rmdir rmdir',
'mv mv -i','rm rm -i','cp cp -i',
'cat cat','less less','clear clear',
# a better ls
'ls ls -F',
# long ls
'll ls -lF')
# Extra ls aliases with color, which need special treatment on BSD
# variants
ls_extra = ( # color ls
'lc ls -F -o --color',
# ls normal files only
'lf ls -F -o --color %l | grep ^-',
# ls symbolic links
'lk ls -F -o --color %l | grep ^l',
# directories or links to directories,
'ldir ls -F -o --color %l | grep /$',
# things which are executable
'lx ls -F -o --color %l | grep ^-..x',
)
# The BSDs don't ship GNU ls, so they don't understand the
# --color switch out of the box
if 'bsd' in sys.platform:
ls_extra = ( # ls normal files only
'lf ls -lF | grep ^-',
# ls symbolic links
'lk ls -lF | grep ^l',
# directories or links to directories,
'ldir ls -lF | grep /$',
# things which are executable
'lx ls -lF | grep ^-..x',
)
auto_alias = auto_alias + ls_extra
elif os.name in ['nt','dos']:
auto_alias = ('dir dir /on', 'ls dir /on',
'ddir dir /ad /on', 'ldir dir /ad /on',
'mkdir mkdir','rmdir rmdir','echo echo',
'ren ren','cls cls','copy copy')
else:
auto_alias = ()
self.auto_alias = [s.split(None,1) for s in auto_alias]
# Call the actual (public) initializer
self.init_auto_alias()
# Produce a public API instance
self.api = IPython.ipapi.IPApi(self)
# track which builtins we add, so we can clean up later
self.builtins_added = {}
# This method will add the necessary builtins for operation, but
# tracking what it did via the builtins_added dict.
self.add_builtins()
# end __init__
def var_expand(self,cmd,depth=0):
"""Expand python variables in a string.
The depth argument indicates how many frames above the caller should
be walked to look for the local namespace where to expand variables.
The global namespace for expansion is always the user's interactive
namespace.
"""
return str(ItplNS(cmd.replace('#','\#'),
self.user_ns, # globals
# Skip our own frame in searching for locals:
sys._getframe(depth+1).f_locals # locals
))
def pre_config_initialization(self):
"""Pre-configuration init method
This is called before the configuration files are processed to
prepare the services the config files might need.
self.rc already has reasonable default values at this point.
"""
rc = self.rc
self.db = pickleshare.PickleShareDB(rc.ipythondir + "/db")
def post_config_initialization(self):
"""Post configuration init method
This is called after the configuration files have been processed to
'finalize' the initialization."""
rc = self.rc
# Object inspector
self.inspector = OInspect.Inspector(OInspect.InspectColors,
PyColorize.ANSICodeColors,
'NoColor',
rc.object_info_string_level)
# Load readline proper
if rc.readline:
self.init_readline()
# local shortcut, this is used a LOT
self.log = self.logger.log
# Initialize cache, set in/out prompts and printing system
self.outputcache = CachedOutput(self,
rc.cache_size,
rc.pprint,
input_sep = rc.separate_in,
output_sep = rc.separate_out,
output_sep2 = rc.separate_out2,
ps1 = rc.prompt_in1,
ps2 = rc.prompt_in2,
ps_out = rc.prompt_out,
pad_left = rc.prompts_pad_left)
# user may have over-ridden the default print hook:
try:
self.outputcache.__class__.display = self.hooks.display
except AttributeError:
pass
# I don't like assigning globally to sys, because it means when
# embedding instances, each embedded instance overrides the previous
# choice. But sys.displayhook seems to be called internally by exec,
# so I don't see a way around it. We first save the original and then
# overwrite it.
self.sys_displayhook = sys.displayhook
sys.displayhook = self.outputcache
# Set user colors (don't do it in the constructor above so that it
# doesn't crash if colors option is invalid)
self.magic_colors(rc.colors)
# Set calling of pdb on exceptions
self.call_pdb = rc.pdb
# Load user aliases
for alias in rc.alias:
self.magic_alias(alias)
self.hooks.late_startup_hook()
batchrun = False
for batchfile in [path(arg) for arg in self.rc.args
if arg.lower().endswith('.ipy')]:
if not batchfile.isfile():
print "No such batch file:", batchfile
continue
self.api.runlines(batchfile.text())
batchrun = True
if batchrun:
self.exit_now = True
def add_builtins(self):
"""Store ipython references into the builtin namespace.
Some parts of ipython operate via builtins injected here, which hold a
reference to IPython itself."""
# TODO: deprecate all except _ip; 'jobs' should be installed
# by an extension and the rest are under _ip, ipalias is redundant
builtins_new = dict(__IPYTHON__ = self,
ip_set_hook = self.set_hook,
jobs = self.jobs,
ipmagic = self.ipmagic,
ipalias = self.ipalias,
ipsystem = self.ipsystem,
ipconfig = self.ipconfig,
_ip = self.api
)
for biname,bival in builtins_new.items():
try:
# store the orignal value so we can restore it
self.builtins_added[biname] = __builtin__.__dict__[biname]
except KeyError:
# or mark that it wasn't defined, and we'll just delete it at
# cleanup
self.builtins_added[biname] = Undefined
__builtin__.__dict__[biname] = bival
# Keep in the builtins a flag for when IPython is active. We set it
# with setdefault so that multiple nested IPythons don't clobber one
# another. Each will increase its value by one upon being activated,
# which also gives us a way to determine the nesting level.
__builtin__.__dict__.setdefault('__IPYTHON__active',0)
def clean_builtins(self):
"""Remove any builtins which might have been added by add_builtins, or
restore overwritten ones to their previous values."""
for biname,bival in self.builtins_added.items():
if bival is Undefined:
del __builtin__.__dict__[biname]
else:
__builtin__.__dict__[biname] = bival
self.builtins_added.clear()
def set_hook(self,name,hook, priority = 50, str_key = None, re_key = None):
"""set_hook(name,hook) -> sets an internal IPython hook.
IPython exposes some of its internal API as user-modifiable hooks. By
adding your function to one of these hooks, you can modify IPython's
behavior to call at runtime your own routines."""
# At some point in the future, this should validate the hook before it
# accepts it. Probably at least check that the hook takes the number
# of args it's supposed to.
f = new.instancemethod(hook,self,self.__class__)
# check if the hook is for strdispatcher first
if str_key is not None:
sdp = self.strdispatchers.get(name, StrDispatch())
sdp.add_s(str_key, f, priority )
self.strdispatchers[name] = sdp
return
if re_key is not None:
sdp = self.strdispatchers.get(name, StrDispatch())
sdp.add_re(re.compile(re_key), f, priority )
self.strdispatchers[name] = sdp
return
dp = getattr(self.hooks, name, None)
if name not in IPython.hooks.__all__:
print "Warning! Hook '%s' is not one of %s" % (name, IPython.hooks.__all__ )
if not dp:
dp = IPython.hooks.CommandChainDispatcher()
try:
dp.add(f,priority)
except AttributeError:
# it was not commandchain, plain old func - replace
dp = f
setattr(self.hooks,name, dp)
#setattr(self.hooks,name,new.instancemethod(hook,self,self.__class__))
def set_crash_handler(self,crashHandler):
"""Set the IPython crash handler.
This must be a callable with a signature suitable for use as
sys.excepthook."""
# Install the given crash handler as the Python exception hook
sys.excepthook = crashHandler
# The instance will store a pointer to this, so that runtime code
# (such as magics) can access it. This is because during the
# read-eval loop, it gets temporarily overwritten (to deal with GUI
# frameworks).
self.sys_excepthook = sys.excepthook
def set_custom_exc(self,exc_tuple,handler):
"""set_custom_exc(exc_tuple,handler)
Set a custom exception handler, which will be called if any of the
exceptions in exc_tuple occur in the mainloop (specifically, in the
runcode() method.
Inputs:
- exc_tuple: a *tuple* of valid exceptions to call the defined
handler for. It is very important that you use a tuple, and NOT A
LIST here, because of the way Python's except statement works. If
you only want to trap a single exception, use a singleton tuple:
exc_tuple == (MyCustomException,)
- handler: this must be defined as a function with the following
basic interface: def my_handler(self,etype,value,tb).
This will be made into an instance method (via new.instancemethod)
of IPython itself, and it will be called if any of the exceptions
listed in the exc_tuple are caught. If the handler is None, an
internal basic one is used, which just prints basic info.
WARNING: by putting in your own exception handler into IPython's main
execution loop, you run a very good chance of nasty crashes. This
facility should only be used if you really know what you are doing."""
assert type(exc_tuple)==type(()) , \
"The custom exceptions must be given AS A TUPLE."
def dummy_handler(self,etype,value,tb):
print '*** Simple custom exception handler ***'
print 'Exception type :',etype
print 'Exception value:',value
print 'Traceback :',tb
print 'Source code :','\n'.join(self.buffer)
if handler is None: handler = dummy_handler
self.CustomTB = new.instancemethod(handler,self,self.__class__)
self.custom_exceptions = exc_tuple
def set_custom_completer(self,completer,pos=0):
"""set_custom_completer(completer,pos=0)
Adds a new custom completer function.
The position argument (defaults to 0) is the index in the completers
list where you want the completer to be inserted."""
newcomp = new.instancemethod(completer,self.Completer,
self.Completer.__class__)
self.Completer.matchers.insert(pos,newcomp)
def _get_call_pdb(self):
return self._call_pdb
def _set_call_pdb(self,val):
if val not in (0,1,False,True):
raise ValueError,'new call_pdb value must be boolean'
# store value in instance
self._call_pdb = val
# notify the actual exception handlers
self.InteractiveTB.call_pdb = val
if self.isthreaded:
try:
self.sys_excepthook.call_pdb = val
except:
warn('Failed to activate pdb for threaded exception handler')
call_pdb = property(_get_call_pdb,_set_call_pdb,None,
'Control auto-activation of pdb at exceptions')
# These special functions get installed in the builtin namespace, to
# provide programmatic (pure python) access to magics, aliases and system
# calls. This is important for logging, user scripting, and more.
# We are basically exposing, via normal python functions, the three
# mechanisms in which ipython offers special call modes (magics for
# internal control, aliases for direct system access via pre-selected
# names, and !cmd for calling arbitrary system commands).
def ipmagic(self,arg_s):
"""Call a magic function by name.
Input: a string containing the name of the magic function to call and any
additional arguments to be passed to the magic.
ipmagic('name -opt foo bar') is equivalent to typing at the ipython
prompt:
In[1]: %name -opt foo bar
To call a magic without arguments, simply use ipmagic('name').
This provides a proper Python function to call IPython's magics in any
valid Python code you can type at the interpreter, including loops and
compound statements. It is added by IPython to the Python builtin
namespace upon initialization."""
args = arg_s.split(' ',1)
magic_name = args[0]
magic_name = magic_name.lstrip(self.ESC_MAGIC)
try:
magic_args = args[1]
except IndexError:
magic_args = ''
fn = getattr(self,'magic_'+magic_name,None)
if fn is None:
error("Magic function `%s` not found." % magic_name)
else:
magic_args = self.var_expand(magic_args,1)
return fn(magic_args)
def ipalias(self,arg_s):
"""Call an alias by name.
Input: a string containing the name of the alias to call and any
additional arguments to be passed to the magic.
ipalias('name -opt foo bar') is equivalent to typing at the ipython
prompt:
In[1]: name -opt foo bar
To call an alias without arguments, simply use ipalias('name').
This provides a proper Python function to call IPython's aliases in any
valid Python code you can type at the interpreter, including loops and
compound statements. It is added by IPython to the Python builtin
namespace upon initialization."""
args = arg_s.split(' ',1)
alias_name = args[0]
try:
alias_args = args[1]
except IndexError:
alias_args = ''
if alias_name in self.alias_table:
self.call_alias(alias_name,alias_args)
else:
error("Alias `%s` not found." % alias_name)
def ipconfig(self,key=None,value=None):
"""Manipulate the IPython config.
This provides a python interface to
If called with no arguments, it prints the internal IPython config
Optional arguments:
- key(None): if given, what key of the rc structure to return.
- value(None): if given, set the key to this value."""
if key is None:
page('Current configuration structure:\n'+
pformat(self.rc.dict()))
else:
if value is None:
print '%s -> %s' % (key,self.rc[key])
else:
if key not in self.rc:
raise KeyError(str(key))
self.rc[key] = value
def ipsystem(self,arg_s):
"""Make a system call, using IPython."""
self.system(arg_s)
def complete(self,text):
"""Return a sorted list of all possible completions on text.
Inputs:
- text: a string of text to be completed on.
This is a wrapper around the completion mechanism, similar to what
readline does at the command line when the TAB key is hit. By
exposing it as a method, it can be used by other non-readline
environments (such as GUIs) for text completion.
Simple usage example:
In [1]: x = 'hello'
In [2]: __IP.complete('x.l')
Out[2]: ['x.ljust', 'x.lower', 'x.lstrip']"""
complete = self.Completer.complete
state = 0
# use a dict so we get unique keys, since ipyhton's multiple
# completers can return duplicates.
comps = {}
while True:
newcomp = complete(text,state)
if newcomp is None:
break
comps[newcomp] = 1
state += 1
outcomps = comps.keys()
outcomps.sort()
return outcomps
def set_completer_frame(self, frame=None):
if frame:
self.Completer.namespace = frame.f_locals
self.Completer.global_namespace = frame.f_globals
else:
self.Completer.namespace = self.user_ns
self.Completer.global_namespace = self.user_global_ns
def init_auto_alias(self):
"""Define some aliases automatically.
These are ALL parameter-less aliases"""
for alias,cmd in self.auto_alias:
self.alias_table[alias] = (0,cmd)
def alias_table_validate(self,verbose=0):
"""Update information about the alias table.
In particular, make sure no Python keywords/builtins are in it."""
no_alias = self.no_alias
for k in self.alias_table.keys():
if k in no_alias:
del self.alias_table[k]
if verbose:
print ("Deleting alias <%s>, it's a Python "
"keyword or builtin." % k)
def set_autoindent(self,value=None):
"""Set the autoindent flag, checking for readline support.
If called with no arguments, it acts as a toggle."""
if not self.has_readline:
if os.name == 'posix':
warn("The auto-indent feature requires the readline library")
self.autoindent = 0
return
if value is None:
self.autoindent = not self.autoindent
else:
self.autoindent = value
def rc_set_toggle(self,rc_field,value=None):
"""Set or toggle a field in IPython's rc config. structure.
If called with no arguments, it acts as a toggle.
If called with a non-existent field, the resulting AttributeError
exception will propagate out."""
rc_val = getattr(self.rc,rc_field)
if value is None:
value = not rc_val
setattr(self.rc,rc_field,value)
def user_setup(self,ipythondir,rc_suffix,mode='install'):
"""Install the user configuration directory.
Can be called when running for the first time or to upgrade the user's
.ipython/ directory with the mode parameter. Valid modes are 'install'
and 'upgrade'."""
def wait():
try:
raw_input("Please press <RETURN> to start IPython.")
except EOFError:
print >> Term.cout
print '*'*70
cwd = os.getcwd() # remember where we started
glb = glob.glob
print '*'*70
if mode == 'install':
print \
"""Welcome to IPython. I will try to create a personal configuration directory
where you can customize many aspects of IPython's functionality in:\n"""
else:
print 'I am going to upgrade your configuration in:'
print ipythondir
rcdirend = os.path.join('IPython','UserConfig')
cfg = lambda d: os.path.join(d,rcdirend)
try:
rcdir = filter(os.path.isdir,map(cfg,sys.path))[0]
except IOError:
warning = """
Installation error. IPython's directory was not found.
Check the following:
The ipython/IPython directory should be in a directory belonging to your
PYTHONPATH environment variable (that is, it should be in a directory
belonging to sys.path). You can copy it explicitly there or just link to it.
IPython will proceed with builtin defaults.
"""
warn(warning)
wait()
return
if mode == 'install':
try:
shutil.copytree(rcdir,ipythondir)
os.chdir(ipythondir)
rc_files = glb("ipythonrc*")
for rc_file in rc_files:
os.rename(rc_file,rc_file+rc_suffix)
except:
warning = """
There was a problem with the installation:
%s
Try to correct it or contact the developers if you think it's a bug.
IPython will proceed with builtin defaults.""" % sys.exc_info()[1]
warn(warning)
wait()
return
elif mode == 'upgrade':
try:
os.chdir(ipythondir)
except:
print """
Can not upgrade: changing to directory %s failed. Details:
%s
""" % (ipythondir,sys.exc_info()[1])
wait()
return
else:
sources = glb(os.path.join(rcdir,'[A-Za-z]*'))
for new_full_path in sources:
new_filename = os.path.basename(new_full_path)
if new_filename.startswith('ipythonrc'):
new_filename = new_filename + rc_suffix
# The config directory should only contain files, skip any
# directories which may be there (like CVS)
if os.path.isdir(new_full_path):
continue
if os.path.exists(new_filename):
old_file = new_filename+'.old'
if os.path.exists(old_file):
os.remove(old_file)
os.rename(new_filename,old_file)
shutil.copy(new_full_path,new_filename)
else:
raise ValueError,'unrecognized mode for install:',`mode`
# Fix line-endings to those native to each platform in the config
# directory.
try:
os.chdir(ipythondir)
except:
print """
Problem: changing to directory %s failed.
Details:
%s
Some configuration files may have incorrect line endings. This should not
cause any problems during execution. """ % (ipythondir,sys.exc_info()[1])
wait()
else:
for fname in glb('ipythonrc*'):
try:
native_line_ends(fname,backup=0)
except IOError:
pass
if mode == 'install':
print """
Successful installation!
Please read the sections 'Initial Configuration' and 'Quick Tips' in the
IPython manual (there are both HTML and PDF versions supplied with the
distribution) to make sure that your system environment is properly configured
to take advantage of IPython's features.
Important note: the configuration system has changed! The old system is
still in place, but its setting may be partly overridden by the settings in
"~/.ipython/ipy_user_conf.py" config file. Please take a look at the file
if some of the new settings bother you.
"""
else:
print """
Successful upgrade!
All files in your directory:
%(ipythondir)s
which would have been overwritten by the upgrade were backed up with a .old
extension. If you had made particular customizations in those files you may
want to merge them back into the new files.""" % locals()
wait()
os.chdir(cwd)
# end user_setup()
def atexit_operations(self):
"""This will be executed at the time of exit.
Saving of persistent data should be performed here. """
#print '*** IPython exit cleanup ***' # dbg
# input history
self.savehist()
# Cleanup all tempfiles left around
for tfile in self.tempfiles:
try:
os.unlink(tfile)
except OSError:
pass
# save the "persistent data" catch-all dictionary
self.hooks.shutdown_hook()
def savehist(self):
"""Save input history to a file (via readline library)."""
try:
self.readline.write_history_file(self.histfile)
except:
print 'Unable to save IPython command history to file: ' + \
`self.histfile`
def history_saving_wrapper(self, func):
""" Wrap func for readline history saving
Convert func into callable that saves & restores
history around the call """
if not self.has_readline:
return func
def wrapper():
self.savehist()
try:
func()
finally:
readline.read_history_file(self.histfile)
return wrapper
def pre_readline(self):
"""readline hook to be used at the start of each line.
Currently it handles auto-indent only."""
#debugx('self.indent_current_nsp','pre_readline:')
self.readline.insert_text(self.indent_current_str())
def init_readline(self):
"""Command history completion/saving/reloading."""
import IPython.rlineimpl as readline
if not readline.have_readline:
self.has_readline = 0
self.readline = None
# no point in bugging windows users with this every time:
warn('Readline services not available on this platform.')
else:
sys.modules['readline'] = readline
import atexit
from IPython.completer import IPCompleter
self.Completer = IPCompleter(self,
self.user_ns,
self.user_global_ns,
self.rc.readline_omit__names,
self.alias_table)
sdisp = self.strdispatchers.get('complete_command', StrDispatch())
self.strdispatchers['complete_command'] = sdisp
self.Completer.custom_completers = sdisp
# Platform-specific configuration
if os.name == 'nt':
self.readline_startup_hook = readline.set_pre_input_hook
else:
self.readline_startup_hook = readline.set_startup_hook
# Load user's initrc file (readline config)
inputrc_name = os.environ.get('INPUTRC')
if inputrc_name is None:
home_dir = get_home_dir()
if home_dir is not None:
inputrc_name = os.path.join(home_dir,'.inputrc')
if os.path.isfile(inputrc_name):
try:
readline.read_init_file(inputrc_name)
except:
warn('Problems reading readline initialization file <%s>'
% inputrc_name)
self.has_readline = 1
self.readline = readline
# save this in sys so embedded copies can restore it properly
sys.ipcompleter = self.Completer.complete
readline.set_completer(self.Completer.complete)
# Configure readline according to user's prefs
for rlcommand in self.rc.readline_parse_and_bind:
readline.parse_and_bind(rlcommand)
# remove some chars from the delimiters list
delims = readline.get_completer_delims()
delims = delims.translate(string._idmap,
self.rc.readline_remove_delims)
readline.set_completer_delims(delims)
# otherwise we end up with a monster history after a while:
readline.set_history_length(1000)
try:
#print '*** Reading readline history' # dbg
readline.read_history_file(self.histfile)
except IOError:
pass # It doesn't exist yet.
atexit.register(self.atexit_operations)
del atexit
# Configure auto-indent for all platforms
self.set_autoindent(self.rc.autoindent)
def ask_yes_no(self,prompt,default=True):
if self.rc.quiet:
return True
return ask_yes_no(prompt,default)
def _should_recompile(self,e):
"""Utility routine for edit_syntax_error"""
if e.filename in ('<ipython console>','<input>','<string>',
'<console>','<BackgroundJob compilation>',
None):
return False
try:
if (self.rc.autoedit_syntax and
not self.ask_yes_no('Return to editor to correct syntax error? '
'[Y/n] ','y')):
return False
except EOFError:
return False
def int0(x):
try:
return int(x)
except TypeError:
return 0
# always pass integer line and offset values to editor hook
self.hooks.fix_error_editor(e.filename,
int0(e.lineno),int0(e.offset),e.msg)
return True
def edit_syntax_error(self):
"""The bottom half of the syntax error handler called in the main loop.
Loop until syntax error is fixed or user cancels.
"""
while self.SyntaxTB.last_syntax_error:
# copy and clear last_syntax_error
err = self.SyntaxTB.clear_err_state()
if not self._should_recompile(err):
return
try:
# may set last_syntax_error again if a SyntaxError is raised
self.safe_execfile(err.filename,self.user_ns)
except:
self.showtraceback()
else:
try:
f = file(err.filename)
try:
sys.displayhook(f.read())
finally:
f.close()
except:
self.showtraceback()
def showsyntaxerror(self, filename=None):
"""Display the syntax error that just occurred.
This doesn't display a stack trace because there isn't one.
If a filename is given, it is stuffed in the exception instead
of what was there before (because Python's parser always uses
"<string>" when reading from a string).
"""
etype, value, last_traceback = sys.exc_info()
# See note about these variables in showtraceback() below
sys.last_type = etype
sys.last_value = value
sys.last_traceback = last_traceback
if filename and etype is SyntaxError:
# Work hard to stuff the correct filename in the exception
try:
msg, (dummy_filename, lineno, offset, line) = value
except:
# Not the format we expect; leave it alone
pass
else:
# Stuff in the right filename
try:
# Assume SyntaxError is a class exception
value = SyntaxError(msg, (filename, lineno, offset, line))
except:
# If that failed, assume SyntaxError is a string
value = msg, (filename, lineno, offset, line)
self.SyntaxTB(etype,value,[])
def debugger(self):
"""Call the pydb/pdb debugger."""
if not self.rc.pdb:
return
have_pydb = False
if sys.version[:3] >= '2.5':
try:
from pydb import pm
have_pydb = True
except ImportError:
pass
if not have_pydb:
from pdb import pm
self.history_saving_wrapper(pm)()
def showtraceback(self,exc_tuple = None,filename=None,tb_offset=None):
"""Display the exception that just occurred.
If nothing is known about the exception, this is the method which
should be used throughout the code for presenting user tracebacks,
rather than directly invoking the InteractiveTB object.
A specific showsyntaxerror() also exists, but this method can take
care of calling it if needed, so unless you are explicitly catching a
SyntaxError exception, don't try to analyze the stack manually and
simply call this method."""
# Though this won't be called by syntax errors in the input line,
# there may be SyntaxError cases whith imported code.
if exc_tuple is None:
etype, value, tb = sys.exc_info()
else:
etype, value, tb = exc_tuple
if etype is SyntaxError:
self.showsyntaxerror(filename)
else:
# WARNING: these variables are somewhat deprecated and not
# necessarily safe to use in a threaded environment, but tools
# like pdb depend on their existence, so let's set them. If we
# find problems in the field, we'll need to revisit their use.
sys.last_type = etype
sys.last_value = value
sys.last_traceback = tb
self.InteractiveTB(etype,value,tb,tb_offset=tb_offset)
if self.InteractiveTB.call_pdb and self.has_readline:
# pdb mucks up readline, fix it back
self.readline.set_completer(self.Completer.complete)
def mainloop(self,banner=None):
"""Creates the local namespace and starts the mainloop.
If an optional banner argument is given, it will override the
internally created default banner."""
if self.rc.c: # Emulate Python's -c option
self.exec_init_cmd()
if banner is None:
if not self.rc.banner:
banner = ''
# banner is string? Use it directly!
elif isinstance(self.rc.banner,basestring):
banner = self.rc.banner
else:
banner = self.BANNER+self.banner2
self.interact(banner)
def exec_init_cmd(self):
"""Execute a command given at the command line.
This emulates Python's -c option."""
#sys.argv = ['-c']
self.push(self.rc.c)
def embed_mainloop(self,header='',local_ns=None,global_ns=None,stack_depth=0):
"""Embeds IPython into a running python program.
Input:
- header: An optional header message can be specified.
- local_ns, global_ns: working namespaces. If given as None, the
IPython-initialized one is updated with __main__.__dict__, so that
program variables become visible but user-specific configuration
remains possible.
- stack_depth: specifies how many levels in the stack to go to
looking for namespaces (when local_ns and global_ns are None). This
allows an intermediate caller to make sure that this function gets
the namespace from the intended level in the stack. By default (0)
it will get its locals and globals from the immediate caller.
Warning: it's possible to use this in a program which is being run by
IPython itself (via %run), but some funny things will happen (a few
globals get overwritten). In the future this will be cleaned up, as
there is no fundamental reason why it can't work perfectly."""
# Get locals and globals from caller
if local_ns is None or global_ns is None:
call_frame = sys._getframe(stack_depth).f_back
if local_ns is None:
local_ns = call_frame.f_locals
if global_ns is None:
global_ns = call_frame.f_globals
# Update namespaces and fire up interpreter
# The global one is easy, we can just throw it in
self.user_global_ns = global_ns
# but the user/local one is tricky: ipython needs it to store internal
# data, but we also need the locals. We'll copy locals in the user
# one, but will track what got copied so we can delete them at exit.
# This is so that a later embedded call doesn't see locals from a
# previous call (which most likely existed in a separate scope).
local_varnames = local_ns.keys()
self.user_ns.update(local_ns)
# Patch for global embedding to make sure that things don't overwrite
# user globals accidentally. Thanks to Richard <rxe@renre-europe.com>
# FIXME. Test this a bit more carefully (the if.. is new)
if local_ns is None and global_ns is None:
self.user_global_ns.update(__main__.__dict__)
# make sure the tab-completer has the correct frame information, so it
# actually completes using the frame's locals/globals
self.set_completer_frame()
# before activating the interactive mode, we need to make sure that
# all names in the builtin namespace needed by ipython point to
# ourselves, and not to other instances.
self.add_builtins()
self.interact(header)
# now, purge out the user namespace from anything we might have added
# from the caller's local namespace
delvar = self.user_ns.pop
for var in local_varnames:
delvar(var,None)
# and clean builtins we may have overridden
self.clean_builtins()
def interact(self, banner=None):
"""Closely emulate the interactive Python console.
The optional banner argument specify the banner to print
before the first interaction; by default it prints a banner
similar to the one printed by the real Python interpreter,
followed by the current class name in parentheses (so as not
to confuse this with the real interpreter -- since it's so
close!).
"""
if self.exit_now:
# batch run -> do not interact
return
cprt = 'Type "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.'
if banner is None:
self.write("Python %s on %s\n%s\n(%s)\n" %
(sys.version, sys.platform, cprt,
self.__class__.__name__))
else:
self.write(banner)
more = 0
# Mark activity in the builtins
__builtin__.__dict__['__IPYTHON__active'] += 1
# exit_now is set by a call to %Exit or %Quit
while not self.exit_now:
if more:
prompt = self.hooks.generate_prompt(True)
if self.autoindent:
self.readline_startup_hook(self.pre_readline)
else:
prompt = self.hooks.generate_prompt(False)
try:
line = self.raw_input(prompt,more)
if self.exit_now:
# quick exit on sys.std[in|out] close
break
if self.autoindent:
self.readline_startup_hook(None)
except KeyboardInterrupt:
self.write('\nKeyboardInterrupt\n')
self.resetbuffer()
# keep cache in sync with the prompt counter:
self.outputcache.prompt_count -= 1
if self.autoindent:
self.indent_current_nsp = 0
more = 0
except EOFError:
if self.autoindent:
self.readline_startup_hook(None)
self.write('\n')
self.exit()
except bdb.BdbQuit:
warn('The Python debugger has exited with a BdbQuit exception.\n'
'Because of how pdb handles the stack, it is impossible\n'
'for IPython to properly format this particular exception.\n'
'IPython will resume normal operation.')
except:
# exceptions here are VERY RARE, but they can be triggered
# asynchronously by signal handlers, for example.
self.showtraceback()
else:
more = self.push(line)
if (self.SyntaxTB.last_syntax_error and
self.rc.autoedit_syntax):
self.edit_syntax_error()
# We are off again...
__builtin__.__dict__['__IPYTHON__active'] -= 1
def excepthook(self, etype, value, tb):
"""One more defense for GUI apps that call sys.excepthook.
GUI frameworks like wxPython trap exceptions and call
sys.excepthook themselves. I guess this is a feature that
enables them to keep running after exceptions that would
otherwise kill their mainloop. This is a bother for IPython
which excepts to catch all of the program exceptions with a try:
except: statement.
Normally, IPython sets sys.excepthook to a CrashHandler instance, so if
any app directly invokes sys.excepthook, it will look to the user like
IPython crashed. In order to work around this, we can disable the
CrashHandler and replace it with this excepthook instead, which prints a
regular traceback using our InteractiveTB. In this fashion, apps which
call sys.excepthook will generate a regular-looking exception from
IPython, and the CrashHandler will only be triggered by real IPython
crashes.
This hook should be used sparingly, only in places which are not likely
to be true IPython errors.
"""
self.showtraceback((etype,value,tb),tb_offset=0)
def expand_aliases(self,fn,rest):
""" Expand multiple levels of aliases:
if:
alias foo bar /tmp
alias baz foo
then:
baz huhhahhei -> bar /tmp huhhahhei
"""
line = fn + " " + rest
done = Set()
while 1:
pre,fn,rest = self.split_user_input(line)
if fn in self.alias_table:
if fn in done:
warn("Cyclic alias definition, repeated '%s'" % fn)
return ""
done.add(fn)
l2 = self.transform_alias(fn,rest)
# dir -> dir
# print "alias",line, "->",l2 #dbg
if l2 == line:
break
# ls -> ls -F should not recurse forever
if l2.split(None,1)[0] == line.split(None,1)[0]:
line = l2
break
line=l2
# print "al expand to",line #dbg
else:
break
return line
def transform_alias(self, alias,rest=''):
""" Transform alias to system command string.
"""
nargs,cmd = self.alias_table[alias]
if ' ' in cmd and os.path.isfile(cmd):
cmd = '"%s"' % cmd
# Expand the %l special to be the user's input line
if cmd.find('%l') >= 0:
cmd = cmd.replace('%l',rest)
rest = ''
if nargs==0:
# Simple, argument-less aliases
cmd = '%s %s' % (cmd,rest)
else:
# Handle aliases with positional arguments
args = rest.split(None,nargs)
if len(args)< nargs:
error('Alias <%s> requires %s arguments, %s given.' %
(alias,nargs,len(args)))
return None
cmd = '%s %s' % (cmd % tuple(args[:nargs]),' '.join(args[nargs:]))
# Now call the macro, evaluating in the user's namespace
#print 'new command: <%r>' % cmd # dbg
return cmd
def call_alias(self,alias,rest=''):
"""Call an alias given its name and the rest of the line.
This is only used to provide backwards compatibility for users of
ipalias(), use of which is not recommended for anymore."""
# Now call the macro, evaluating in the user's namespace
cmd = self.transform_alias(alias, rest)
try:
self.system(cmd)
except:
self.showtraceback()
def indent_current_str(self):
"""return the current level of indentation as a string"""
return self.indent_current_nsp * ' '
def autoindent_update(self,line):
"""Keep track of the indent level."""
#debugx('line')
#debugx('self.indent_current_nsp')
if self.autoindent:
if line:
inisp = num_ini_spaces(line)
if inisp < self.indent_current_nsp:
self.indent_current_nsp = inisp
if line[-1] == ':':
self.indent_current_nsp += 4
elif dedent_re.match(line):
self.indent_current_nsp -= 4
else:
self.indent_current_nsp = 0
def runlines(self,lines):
"""Run a string of one or more lines of source.
This method is capable of running a string containing multiple source
lines, as if they had been entered at the IPython prompt. Since it
exposes IPython's processing machinery, the given strings can contain
magic calls (%magic), special shell access (!cmd), etc."""
# We must start with a clean buffer, in case this is run from an
# interactive IPython session (via a magic, for example).
self.resetbuffer()
lines = lines.split('\n')
more = 0
for line in lines:
# skip blank lines so we don't mess up the prompt counter, but do
# NOT skip even a blank line if we are in a code block (more is
# true)
if line or more:
more = self.push(self.prefilter(line,more))
# IPython's runsource returns None if there was an error
# compiling the code. This allows us to stop processing right
# away, so the user gets the error message at the right place.
if more is None:
break
# final newline in case the input didn't have it, so that the code
# actually does get executed
if more:
self.push('\n')
def runsource(self, source, filename='<input>', symbol='single'):
"""Compile and run some source in the interpreter.
Arguments are as for compile_command().
One several things can happen:
1) The input is incorrect; compile_command() raised an
exception (SyntaxError or OverflowError). A syntax traceback
will be printed by calling the showsyntaxerror() method.
2) The input is incomplete, and more input is required;
compile_command() returned None. Nothing happens.
3) The input is complete; compile_command() returned a code
object. The code is executed by calling self.runcode() (which
also handles run-time exceptions, except for SystemExit).
The return value is:
- True in case 2
- False in the other cases, unless an exception is raised, where
None is returned instead. This can be used by external callers to
know whether to continue feeding input or not.
The return value can be used to decide whether to use sys.ps1 or
sys.ps2 to prompt the next line."""
# if the source code has leading blanks, add 'if 1:\n' to it
# this allows execution of indented pasted code. It is tempting
# to add '\n' at the end of source to run commands like ' a=1'
# directly, but this fails for more complicated scenarios
if source[:1] in [' ', '\t']:
source = 'if 1:\n%s' % source
try:
code = self.compile(source,filename,symbol)
except (OverflowError, SyntaxError, ValueError):
# Case 1
self.showsyntaxerror(filename)
return None
if code is None:
# Case 2
return True
# Case 3
# We store the code object so that threaded shells and
# custom exception handlers can access all this info if needed.
# The source corresponding to this can be obtained from the
# buffer attribute as '\n'.join(self.buffer).
self.code_to_run = code
# now actually execute the code object
if self.runcode(code) == 0:
return False
else:
return None
def runcode(self,code_obj):
"""Execute a code object.
When an exception occurs, self.showtraceback() is called to display a
traceback.
Return value: a flag indicating whether the code to be run completed
successfully:
- 0: successful execution.
- 1: an error occurred.
"""
# Set our own excepthook in case the user code tries to call it
# directly, so that the IPython crash handler doesn't get triggered
old_excepthook,sys.excepthook = sys.excepthook, self.excepthook
# we save the original sys.excepthook in the instance, in case config
# code (such as magics) needs access to it.
self.sys_excepthook = old_excepthook
outflag = 1 # happens in more places, so it's easier as default
try:
try:
# Embedded instances require separate global/local namespaces
# so they can see both the surrounding (local) namespace and
# the module-level globals when called inside another function.
if self.embedded:
exec code_obj in self.user_global_ns, self.user_ns
# Normal (non-embedded) instances should only have a single
# namespace for user code execution, otherwise functions won't
# see interactive top-level globals.
else:
exec code_obj in self.user_ns
finally:
# Reset our crash handler in place
sys.excepthook = old_excepthook
except SystemExit:
self.resetbuffer()
self.showtraceback()
warn("Type %exit or %quit to exit IPython "
"(%Exit or %Quit do so unconditionally).",level=1)
except self.custom_exceptions:
etype,value,tb = sys.exc_info()
self.CustomTB(etype,value,tb)
except:
self.showtraceback()
else:
outflag = 0
if softspace(sys.stdout, 0):
print
# Flush out code object which has been run (and source)
self.code_to_run = None
return outflag
def push(self, line):
"""Push a line to the interpreter.
The line should not have a trailing newline; it may have
internal newlines. The line is appended to a buffer and the
interpreter's runsource() method is called with the
concatenated contents of the buffer as source. If this
indicates that the command was executed or invalid, the buffer
is reset; otherwise, the command is incomplete, and the buffer
is left as it was after the line was appended. The return
value is 1 if more input is required, 0 if the line was dealt
with in some way (this is the same as runsource()).
"""
# autoindent management should be done here, and not in the
# interactive loop, since that one is only seen by keyboard input. We
# need this done correctly even for code run via runlines (which uses
# push).
#print 'push line: <%s>' % line # dbg
for subline in line.splitlines():
self.autoindent_update(subline)
self.buffer.append(line)
more = self.runsource('\n'.join(self.buffer), self.filename)
if not more:
self.resetbuffer()
return more
def resetbuffer(self):
"""Reset the input buffer."""
self.buffer[:] = []
def raw_input(self,prompt='',continue_prompt=False):
"""Write a prompt and read a line.
The returned line does not include the trailing newline.
When the user enters the EOF key sequence, EOFError is raised.
Optional inputs:
- prompt(''): a string to be printed to prompt the user.
- continue_prompt(False): whether this line is the first one or a
continuation in a sequence of inputs.
"""
try:
line = raw_input_original(prompt)
except ValueError:
warn("\n********\nYou or a %run:ed script called sys.stdin.close() or sys.stdout.close()!\nExiting IPython!")
self.exit_now = True
return ""
# Try to be reasonably smart about not re-indenting pasted input more
# than necessary. We do this by trimming out the auto-indent initial
# spaces, if the user's actual input started itself with whitespace.
#debugx('self.buffer[-1]')
if self.autoindent:
if num_ini_spaces(line) > self.indent_current_nsp:
line = line[self.indent_current_nsp:]
self.indent_current_nsp = 0
# store the unfiltered input before the user has any chance to modify
# it.
if line.strip():
if continue_prompt:
self.input_hist_raw[-1] += '%s\n' % line
if self.has_readline: # and some config option is set?
try:
histlen