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""" History related magics and functionality """
# Copyright (C) 2010 The IPython Development Team.
# Distributed under the terms of the BSD License.
# The full license is in the file COPYING.txt, distributed with this software.
# Imports
from __future__ import print_function
# Stdlib imports
import atexit
import datetime
import os
import re
import sqlite3
except ImportError:
sqlite3 = None
import threading
# Our own packages
from IPython.config.configurable import Configurable
from IPython.external.decorator import decorator
from IPython.testing.skipdoctest import skip_doctest
from IPython.utils import io
from IPython.utils.path import locate_profile
from IPython.utils.traitlets import Bool, Dict, Instance, Integer, List, Unicode
from IPython.utils.warn import warn
# Classes and functions
class DummyDB(object):
"""Dummy DB that will act as a black hole for history.
Only used in the absence of sqlite"""
def execute(*args, **kwargs):
return []
def commit(self, *args, **kwargs):
def __enter__(self, *args, **kwargs):
def __exit__(self, *args, **kwargs):
def needs_sqlite(f,*a,**kw):
"""return an empty list in the absence of sqlite"""
if sqlite3 is None:
return []
return f(*a,**kw)
class HistoryAccessor(Configurable):
"""Access the history database without adding to it.
This is intended for use by standalone history tools. IPython shells use
HistoryManager, below, which is a subclass of this."""
# String holding the path to the history file
hist_file = Unicode(config=True,
help="""Path to file to use for SQLite history database.
By default, IPython will put the history database in the IPython profile
directory. If you would rather share one history among profiles,
you ca set this value in each, so that they are consistent.
Due to an issue with fcntl, SQLite is known to misbehave on some NFS mounts.
If you see IPython hanging, try setting this to something on a local disk,
ipython --HistoryManager.hist_file=/tmp/ipython_hist.sqlite
# The SQLite database
if sqlite3:
db = Instance(sqlite3.Connection)
db = Instance(DummyDB)
def __init__(self, profile='default', hist_file=u'', config=None, **traits):
"""Create a new history accessor.
profile : str
The name of the profile from which to open history.
hist_file : str
Path to an SQLite history database stored by IPython. If specified,
hist_file overrides profile.
config :
Config object. hist_file can also be set through this.
# We need a pointer back to the shell for various tasks.
super(HistoryAccessor, self).__init__(config=config, **traits)
# defer setting hist_file from kwarg until after init,
# otherwise the default kwarg value would clobber any value
# set by config
if hist_file:
self.hist_file = hist_file
if self.hist_file == u'':
# No one has set the hist_file, yet.
self.hist_file = self._get_hist_file_name(profile)
if sqlite3 is None:
warn("IPython History requires SQLite, your history will not be saved\n")
self.db = DummyDB()
except sqlite3.DatabaseError:
if os.path.isfile(self.hist_file):
# Try to move the file out of the way
base,ext = os.path.splitext(self.hist_file)
newpath = base + '-corrupt' + ext
os.rename(self.hist_file, newpath)
print("ERROR! History file wasn't a valid SQLite database.",
"It was moved to %s" % newpath, "and a new file created.")
# The hist_file is probably :memory: or something else.
def _get_hist_file_name(self, profile='default'):
"""Find the history file for the given profile name.
This is overridden by the HistoryManager subclass, to use the shell's
active profile.
profile : str
The name of a profile which has a history file.
return os.path.join(locate_profile(profile), 'history.sqlite')
def init_db(self):
"""Connect to the database, and create tables if necessary."""
# use detect_types so that timestamps return datetime objects
self.db = sqlite3.connect(self.hist_file, detect_types=sqlite3.PARSE_DECLTYPES|sqlite3.PARSE_COLNAMES)
self.db.execute("""CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS sessions (session integer
primary key autoincrement, start timestamp,
end timestamp, num_cmds integer, remark text)""")
self.db.execute("""CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS history
(session integer, line integer, source text, source_raw text,
PRIMARY KEY (session, line))""")
# Output history is optional, but ensure the table's there so it can be
# enabled later.
self.db.execute("""CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS output_history
(session integer, line integer, output text,
PRIMARY KEY (session, line))""")
def writeout_cache(self):
"""Overridden by HistoryManager to dump the cache before certain
database lookups."""
## -------------------------------
## Methods for retrieving history:
## -------------------------------
def _run_sql(self, sql, params, raw=True, output=False):
"""Prepares and runs an SQL query for the history database.
sql : str
Any filtering expressions to go after SELECT ... FROM ...
params : tuple
Parameters passed to the SQL query (to replace "?")
raw, output : bool
See :meth:`get_range`
Tuples as :meth:`get_range`
toget = 'source_raw' if raw else 'source'
sqlfrom = "history"
if output:
sqlfrom = "history LEFT JOIN output_history USING (session, line)"
toget = "history.%s, output_history.output" % toget
cur = self.db.execute("SELECT session, line, %s FROM %s " %\
(toget, sqlfrom) + sql, params)
if output: # Regroup into 3-tuples, and parse JSON
return ((ses, lin, (inp, out)) for ses, lin, inp, out in cur)
return cur
def get_session_info(self, session=0):
"""get info about a session
session : int
Session number to retrieve. The current session is 0, and negative
numbers count back from current session, so -1 is previous session.
(session_id [int], start [datetime], end [datetime], num_cmds [int], remark [unicode])
Sessions that are running or did not exit cleanly will have `end=None`
and `num_cmds=None`.
if session <= 0:
session += self.session_number
query = "SELECT * from sessions where session == ?"
return self.db.execute(query, (session,)).fetchone()
def get_tail(self, n=10, raw=True, output=False, include_latest=False):
"""Get the last n lines from the history database.
n : int
The number of lines to get
raw, output : bool
See :meth:`get_range`
include_latest : bool
If False (default), n+1 lines are fetched, and the latest one
is discarded. This is intended to be used where the function
is called by a user command, which it should not return.
Tuples as :meth:`get_range`
if not include_latest:
n += 1
cur = self._run_sql("ORDER BY session DESC, line DESC LIMIT ?",
(n,), raw=raw, output=output)
if not include_latest:
return reversed(list(cur)[1:])
return reversed(list(cur))
def search(self, pattern="*", raw=True, search_raw=True,
"""Search the database using unix glob-style matching (wildcards
* and ?).
pattern : str
The wildcarded pattern to match when searching
search_raw : bool
If True, search the raw input, otherwise, the parsed input
raw, output : bool
See :meth:`get_range`
Tuples as :meth:`get_range`
tosearch = "source_raw" if search_raw else "source"
if output:
tosearch = "history." + tosearch
return self._run_sql("WHERE %s GLOB ?" % tosearch, (pattern,),
raw=raw, output=output)
def get_range(self, session, start=1, stop=None, raw=True,output=False):
"""Retrieve input by session.
session : int
Session number to retrieve.
start : int
First line to retrieve.
stop : int
End of line range (excluded from output itself). If None, retrieve
to the end of the session.
raw : bool
If True, return untranslated input
output : bool
If True, attempt to include output. This will be 'real' Python
objects for the current session, or text reprs from previous
sessions if db_log_output was enabled at the time. Where no output
is found, None is used.
An iterator over the desired lines. Each line is a 3-tuple, either
(session, line, input) if output is False, or
(session, line, (input, output)) if output is True.
if stop:
lineclause = "line >= ? AND line < ?"
params = (session, start, stop)
lineclause = "line>=?"
params = (session, start)
return self._run_sql("WHERE session==? AND %s""" % lineclause,
params, raw=raw, output=output)
def get_range_by_str(self, rangestr, raw=True, output=False):
"""Get lines of history from a string of ranges, as used by magic
commands %hist, %save, %macro, etc.
rangestr : str
A string specifying ranges, e.g. "5 ~2/1-4". See
:func:`magic_history` for full details.
raw, output : bool
As :meth:`get_range`
Tuples as :meth:`get_range`
for sess, s, e in extract_hist_ranges(rangestr):
for line in self.get_range(sess, s, e, raw=raw, output=output):
yield line
class HistoryManager(HistoryAccessor):
"""A class to organize all history-related functionality in one place.
# Public interface
# An instance of the IPython shell we are attached to
shell = Instance('IPython.core.interactiveshell.InteractiveShellABC')
# Lists to hold processed and raw history. These start with a blank entry
# so that we can index them starting from 1
input_hist_parsed = List([""])
input_hist_raw = List([""])
# A list of directories visited during session
dir_hist = List()
def _dir_hist_default(self):
return [os.getcwdu()]
except OSError:
return []
# A dict of output history, keyed with ints from the shell's
# execution count.
output_hist = Dict()
# The text/plain repr of outputs.
output_hist_reprs = Dict()
# The number of the current session in the history database
session_number = Integer()
# Should we log output to the database? (default no)
db_log_output = Bool(False, config=True)
# Write to database every x commands (higher values save disk access & power)
# Values of 1 or less effectively disable caching.
db_cache_size = Integer(0, config=True)
# The input and output caches
db_input_cache = List()
db_output_cache = List()
# History saving in separate thread
save_thread = Instance('IPython.core.history.HistorySavingThread')
try: # Event is a function returning an instance of _Event...
save_flag = Instance(threading._Event)
except AttributeError: # ...until Python 3.3, when it's a class.
save_flag = Instance(threading.Event)
# Private interface
# Variables used to store the three last inputs from the user. On each new
# history update, we populate the user's namespace with these, shifted as
# necessary.
_i00 = Unicode(u'')
_i = Unicode(u'')
_ii = Unicode(u'')
_iii = Unicode(u'')
# A regex matching all forms of the exit command, so that we don't store
# them in the history (it's annoying to rewind the first entry and land on
# an exit call).
_exit_re = re.compile(r"(exit|quit)(\s*\(.*\))?$")
def __init__(self, shell=None, config=None, **traits):
"""Create a new history manager associated with a shell instance.
# We need a pointer back to the shell for various tasks.
super(HistoryManager, self).__init__(shell=shell, config=config,
self.save_flag = threading.Event()
self.db_input_cache_lock = threading.Lock()
self.db_output_cache_lock = threading.Lock()
self.save_thread = HistorySavingThread(self)
def _get_hist_file_name(self, profile=None):
"""Get default history file name based on the Shell's profile.
The profile parameter is ignored, but must exist for compatibility with
the parent class."""
profile_dir = self.shell.profile_dir.location
return os.path.join(profile_dir, 'history.sqlite')
def new_session(self, conn=None):
"""Get a new session number."""
if conn is None:
conn = self.db
with conn:
cur = conn.execute("""INSERT INTO sessions VALUES (NULL, ?, NULL,
NULL, "") """, (datetime.datetime.now(),))
self.session_number = cur.lastrowid
def end_session(self):
"""Close the database session, filling in the end time and line count."""
with self.db:
self.db.execute("""UPDATE sessions SET end=?, num_cmds=? WHERE
session==?""", (datetime.datetime.now(),
len(self.input_hist_parsed)-1, self.session_number))
self.session_number = 0
def name_session(self, name):
"""Give the current session a name in the history database."""
with self.db:
self.db.execute("UPDATE sessions SET remark=? WHERE session==?",
(name, self.session_number))
def reset(self, new_session=True):
"""Clear the session history, releasing all object references, and
optionally open a new session."""
# The directory history can't be completely empty
self.dir_hist[:] = [os.getcwdu()]
if new_session:
if self.session_number:
self.input_hist_parsed[:] = [""]
self.input_hist_raw[:] = [""]
# ------------------------------
# Methods for retrieving history
# ------------------------------
def _get_range_session(self, start=1, stop=None, raw=True, output=False):
"""Get input and output history from the current session. Called by
get_range, and takes similar parameters."""
input_hist = self.input_hist_raw if raw else self.input_hist_parsed
n = len(input_hist)
if start < 0:
start += n
if not stop or (stop > n):
stop = n
elif stop < 0:
stop += n
for i in range(start, stop):
if output:
line = (input_hist[i], self.output_hist_reprs.get(i))
line = input_hist[i]
yield (0, i, line)
def get_range(self, session=0, start=1, stop=None, raw=True,output=False):
"""Retrieve input by session.
session : int
Session number to retrieve. The current session is 0, and negative
numbers count back from current session, so -1 is previous session.
start : int
First line to retrieve.
stop : int
End of line range (excluded from output itself). If None, retrieve
to the end of the session.
raw : bool
If True, return untranslated input
output : bool
If True, attempt to include output. This will be 'real' Python
objects for the current session, or text reprs from previous
sessions if db_log_output was enabled at the time. Where no output
is found, None is used.
An iterator over the desired lines. Each line is a 3-tuple, either
(session, line, input) if output is False, or
(session, line, (input, output)) if output is True.
if session <= 0:
session += self.session_number
if session==self.session_number: # Current session
return self._get_range_session(start, stop, raw, output)
return super(HistoryManager, self).get_range(session, start, stop, raw, output)
## ----------------------------
## Methods for storing history:
## ----------------------------
def store_inputs(self, line_num, source, source_raw=None):
"""Store source and raw input in history and create input cache
variables _i*.
line_num : int
The prompt number of this input.
source : str
Python input.
source_raw : str, optional
If given, this is the raw input without any IPython transformations
applied to it. If not given, ``source`` is used.
if source_raw is None:
source_raw = source
source = source.rstrip('\n')
source_raw = source_raw.rstrip('\n')
# do not store exit/quit commands
if self._exit_re.match(source_raw.strip()):
with self.db_input_cache_lock:
self.db_input_cache.append((line_num, source, source_raw))
# Trigger to flush cache and write to DB.
if len(self.db_input_cache) >= self.db_cache_size:
# update the auto _i variables
self._iii = self._ii
self._ii = self._i
self._i = self._i00
self._i00 = source_raw
# hackish access to user namespace to create _i1,_i2... dynamically
new_i = '_i%s' % line_num
to_main = {'_i': self._i,
'_ii': self._ii,
'_iii': self._iii,
new_i : self._i00 }
def store_output(self, line_num):
"""If database output logging is enabled, this saves all the
outputs from the indicated prompt number to the database. It's
called by run_cell after code has been executed.
line_num : int
The line number from which to save outputs
if (not self.db_log_output) or (line_num not in self.output_hist_reprs):
output = self.output_hist_reprs[line_num]
with self.db_output_cache_lock:
self.db_output_cache.append((line_num, output))
if self.db_cache_size <= 1:
def _writeout_input_cache(self, conn):
with conn:
for line in self.db_input_cache:
conn.execute("INSERT INTO history VALUES (?, ?, ?, ?)",
def _writeout_output_cache(self, conn):
with conn:
for line in self.db_output_cache:
conn.execute("INSERT INTO output_history VALUES (?, ?, ?)",
def writeout_cache(self, conn=None):
"""Write any entries in the cache to the database."""
if conn is None:
conn = self.db
with self.db_input_cache_lock:
except sqlite3.IntegrityError:
print("ERROR! Session/line number was not unique in",
"database. History logging moved to new session",
try: # Try writing to the new session. If this fails, don't recurse
except sqlite3.IntegrityError:
self.db_input_cache = []
with self.db_output_cache_lock:
except sqlite3.IntegrityError:
print("!! Session/line number for output was not unique",
"in database. Output will not be stored.")
self.db_output_cache = []
class HistorySavingThread(threading.Thread):
"""This thread takes care of writing history to the database, so that
the UI isn't held up while that happens.
It waits for the HistoryManager's save_flag to be set, then writes out
the history cache. The main thread is responsible for setting the flag when
the cache size reaches a defined threshold."""
daemon = True
stop_now = False
def __init__(self, history_manager):
super(HistorySavingThread, self).__init__()
self.history_manager = history_manager
def run(self):
# We need a separate db connection per thread:
self.db = sqlite3.connect(self.history_manager.hist_file)
while True:
if self.stop_now:
except Exception as e:
print(("The history saving thread hit an unexpected error (%s)."
"History will not be written to the database.") % repr(e))
def stop(self):
"""This can be called from the main thread to safely stop this thread.
Note that it does not attempt to write out remaining history before
exiting. That should be done by calling the HistoryManager's
end_session method."""
self.stop_now = True
# To match, e.g. ~5/8-~2/3
range_re = re.compile(r"""
(?P<start>\d+) # Only the start line num is compulsory
$""", re.VERBOSE)
def extract_hist_ranges(ranges_str):
"""Turn a string of history ranges into 3-tuples of (session, start, stop).
list(extract_input_ranges("~8/5-~7/4 2"))
[(-8, 5, None), (-7, 1, 4), (0, 2, 3)]
for range_str in ranges_str.split():
rmatch = range_re.match(range_str)
if not rmatch:
start = int(rmatch.group("start"))
end = rmatch.group("end")
end = int(end) if end else start+1 # If no end specified, get (a, a+1)
if rmatch.group("sep") == "-": # 1-3 == 1:4 --> [1, 2, 3]
end += 1
startsess = rmatch.group("startsess") or "0"
endsess = rmatch.group("endsess") or startsess
startsess = int(startsess.replace("~","-"))
endsess = int(endsess.replace("~","-"))
assert endsess >= startsess
if endsess == startsess:
yield (startsess, start, end)
# Multiple sessions in one range:
yield (startsess, start, None)
for sess in range(startsess+1, endsess):
yield (sess, 1, None)
yield (endsess, 1, end)
def _format_lineno(session, line):
"""Helper function to format line numbers properly."""
if session == 0:
return str(line)
return "%s#%s" % (session, line)
def magic_history(self, parameter_s = ''):
"""Print input history (_i<n> variables), with most recent last.
%history -> print at most 40 inputs (some may be multi-line)\\
%history n -> print at most n inputs\\
%history n1 n2 -> print inputs between n1 and n2 (n2 not included)\\
By default, input history is printed without line numbers so it can be
directly pasted into an editor. Use -n to show them.
Ranges of history can be indicated using the syntax:
4 : Line 4, current session
4-6 : Lines 4-6, current session
243/1-5: Lines 1-5, session 243
~2/7 : Line 7, session 2 before current
~8/1-~6/5 : From the first line of 8 sessions ago, to the fifth line
of 6 sessions ago.
Multiple ranges can be entered, separated by spaces
The same syntax is used by %macro, %save, %edit, %rerun
-n: print line numbers for each input.
This feature is only available if numbered prompts are in use.
-o: also print outputs for each input.
-p: print classic '>>>' python prompts before each input. This is useful
for making documentation, and in conjunction with -o, for producing
doctest-ready output.
-r: (default) print the 'raw' history, i.e. the actual commands you typed.
-t: print the 'translated' history, as IPython understands it. IPython
filters your input and converts it all into valid Python source before
executing it (things like magics or aliases are turned into function
calls, for example). With this option, you'll see the native history
instead of the user-entered version: '%cd /' will be seen as
'get_ipython().magic("%cd /")' instead of '%cd /'.
-g: treat the arg as a pattern to grep for in (full) history.
This includes the saved history (almost all commands ever written).
Use '%hist -g' to show full saved history (may be very long).
-l: get the last n lines from all sessions. Specify n as a single arg, or
the default is the last 10 lines.
-f FILENAME: instead of printing the output to the screen, redirect it to
the given file. The file is always overwritten, though IPython asks for
confirmation first if it already exists.
In [6]: %hist -n 4 6
4:a = 12
5:print a**2
if not self.shell.displayhook.do_full_cache:
print('This feature is only available if numbered prompts are in use.')
opts,args = self.parse_options(parameter_s,'noprtglf:',mode='string')
# For brevity
history_manager = self.shell.history_manager
def _format_lineno(session, line):
"""Helper function to format line numbers properly."""
if session in (0, history_manager.session_number):
return str(line)
return "%s/%s" % (session, line)
# Check if output to specific file was requested.
outfname = opts['f']
except KeyError:
outfile = io.stdout # default
# We don't want to close stdout at the end!
close_at_end = False
if os.path.exists(outfname):
if not io.ask_yes_no("File %r exists. Overwrite?" % outfname):
outfile = open(outfname,'w')
close_at_end = True
print_nums = 'n' in opts
get_output = 'o' in opts
pyprompts = 'p' in opts
# Raw history is the default
raw = not('t' in opts)
default_length = 40
pattern = None
if 'g' in opts: # Glob search
pattern = "*" + args + "*" if args else "*"
hist = history_manager.search(pattern, raw=raw, output=get_output)
print_nums = True
elif 'l' in opts: # Get 'tail'
n = int(args)
except ValueError, IndexError:
n = 10
hist = history_manager.get_tail(n, raw=raw, output=get_output)
if args: # Get history by ranges
hist = history_manager.get_range_by_str(args, raw, get_output)
else: # Just get history for the current session
hist = history_manager.get_range(raw=raw, output=get_output)
# We could be displaying the entire history, so let's not try to pull it
# into a list in memory. Anything that needs more space will just misalign.
width = 4
for session, lineno, inline in hist:
# Print user history with tabs expanded to 4 spaces. The GUI clients
# use hard tabs for easier usability in auto-indented code, but we want
# to produce PEP-8 compliant history for safe pasting into an editor.
if get_output:
inline, output = inline
inline = inline.expandtabs(4).rstrip()
multiline = "\n" in inline
line_sep = '\n' if multiline else ' '
if print_nums:
print('%s:%s' % (_format_lineno(session, lineno).rjust(width),
line_sep), file=outfile, end='')
if pyprompts:
print(">>> ", end="", file=outfile)
if multiline:
inline = "\n... ".join(inline.splitlines()) + "\n..."
print(inline, file=outfile)
if get_output and output:
print(output, file=outfile)
if close_at_end:
def magic_rep(self, arg):
r"""Repeat a command, or get command to input line for editing.
%recall and %rep are equivalent.
- %recall (no arguments):
Place a string version of last computation result (stored in the special '_'
variable) to the next input prompt. Allows you to create elaborate command
lines without using copy-paste::
In[1]: l = ["hei", "vaan"]
In[2]: "".join(l)
Out[2]: heivaan
In[3]: %rep
In[4]: heivaan_ <== cursor blinking
%recall 45
Place history line 45 on the next input prompt. Use %hist to find
out the number.
%recall 1-4
Combine the specified lines into one cell, and place it on the next
input prompt. See %history for the slice syntax.
%recall foo+bar
If foo+bar can be evaluated in the user namespace, the result is
placed at the next input prompt. Otherwise, the history is searched
for lines which contain that substring, and the most recent one is
placed at the next input prompt.
if not arg: # Last output
# Get history range
histlines = self.history_manager.get_range_by_str(arg)
cmd = "\n".join(x[2] for x in histlines)
if cmd:
try: # Variable in user namespace
cmd = str(eval(arg, self.shell.user_ns))
except Exception: # Search for term in history
histlines = self.history_manager.search("*"+arg+"*")
for h in reversed([x[2] for x in histlines]):
if 'rep' in h:
print("Couldn't evaluate or find in history:", arg)
def magic_rerun(self, parameter_s=''):
"""Re-run previous input
By default, you can specify ranges of input history to be repeated
(as with %history). With no arguments, it will repeat the last line.
-l <n> : Repeat the last n lines of input, not including the
current command.
-g foo : Repeat the most recent line which contains foo
opts, args = self.parse_options(parameter_s, 'l:g:', mode='string')
if "l" in opts: # Last n lines
n = int(opts['l'])
hist = self.history_manager.get_tail(n)
elif "g" in opts: # Search
p = "*"+opts['g']+"*"
hist = list(self.history_manager.search(p))
for l in reversed(hist):
if "rerun" not in l[2]:
hist = [l] # The last match which isn't a %rerun
hist = [] # No matches except %rerun
elif args: # Specify history ranges
hist = self.history_manager.get_range_by_str(args)
else: # Last line
hist = self.history_manager.get_tail(1)
hist = [x[2] for x in hist]
if not hist:
print("No lines in history match specification")
histlines = "\n".join(hist)
print("=== Executing: ===")
print("=== Output: ===")
self.run_cell("\n".join(hist), store_history=False)
def init_ipython(ip):
ip.define_magic("rep", magic_rep)
ip.define_magic("recall", magic_rep)
ip.define_magic("rerun", magic_rerun)
ip.define_magic("hist",magic_history) # Alternative name
# XXX - ipy_completers are in quarantine, need to be updated to new apis
#import ipy_completers
#ipy_completers.quick_completer('%hist' ,'-g -t -r -n')