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payload.write_payload: use `single` keyword instead of `update` * change default behavior when adding payloads to single=True * document write_payload

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"""A ZMQ-based subclass of InteractiveShell.
This code is meant to ease the refactoring of the base InteractiveShell into
something with a cleaner architecture for 2-process use, without actually
breaking InteractiveShell itself. So we're doing something a bit ugly, where
we subclass and override what we want to fix. Once this is working well, we
can go back to the base class and refactor the code for a cleaner inheritance
implementation that doesn't rely on so much monkeypatching.
But this lets us maintain a fully working IPython as we develop the new
machinery. This should thus be thought of as scaffolding.
# Imports
from __future__ import print_function
# Stdlib
import os
import sys
import time
# System library imports
from zmq.eventloop import ioloop
# Our own
from IPython.core.interactiveshell import (
InteractiveShell, InteractiveShellABC
from IPython.core import page
from IPython.core.autocall import ZMQExitAutocall
from IPython.core.displaypub import DisplayPublisher
from IPython.core.error import UsageError
from IPython.core.magics import MacroToEdit, CodeMagics
from IPython.core.magic import magics_class, line_magic, Magics
from IPython.core.payloadpage import install_payload_page
from IPython.display import display, Javascript
from IPython.kernel.inprocess.socket import SocketABC
from IPython.kernel import (
get_connection_file, get_connection_info, connect_qtconsole
from IPython.testing.skipdoctest import skip_doctest
from IPython.utils import openpy
from IPython.utils.jsonutil import json_clean, encode_images
from IPython.utils.process import arg_split
from IPython.utils import py3compat
from IPython.utils.traitlets import Instance, Type, Dict, CBool, CBytes
from IPython.utils.warn import error
from IPython.kernel.zmq.displayhook import ZMQShellDisplayHook
from IPython.kernel.zmq.datapub import ZMQDataPublisher
from IPython.kernel.zmq.session import extract_header
from session import Session
# Functions and classes
class ZMQDisplayPublisher(DisplayPublisher):
"""A display publisher that publishes data using a ZeroMQ PUB socket."""
session = Instance(Session)
pub_socket = Instance(SocketABC)
parent_header = Dict({})
topic = CBytes(b'display_data')
def set_parent(self, parent):
"""Set the parent for outbound messages."""
self.parent_header = extract_header(parent)
def _flush_streams(self):
"""flush IO Streams prior to display"""
def publish(self, source, data, metadata=None):
if metadata is None:
metadata = {}
self._validate_data(source, data, metadata)
content = {}
content['source'] = source
content['data'] = encode_images(data)
content['metadata'] = metadata
self.pub_socket, u'display_data', json_clean(content),
parent=self.parent_header, ident=self.topic,
def clear_output(self, wait=False):
content = dict(wait=wait)
print('\r', file=sys.stdout, end='')
print('\r', file=sys.stderr, end='')
self.pub_socket, u'clear_output', content,
parent=self.parent_header, ident=self.topic,
class KernelMagics(Magics):
# Magic overrides
# Once the base class stops inheriting from magic, this code needs to be
# moved into a separate machinery as well. For now, at least isolate here
# the magics which this class needs to implement differently from the base
# class, or that are unique to it.
def doctest_mode(self, parameter_s=''):
"""Toggle doctest mode on and off.
This mode is intended to make IPython behave as much as possible like a
plain Python shell, from the perspective of how its prompts, exceptions
and output look. This makes it easy to copy and paste parts of a
session into doctests. It does so by:
- Changing the prompts to the classic ``>>>`` ones.
- Changing the exception reporting mode to 'Plain'.
- Disabling pretty-printing of output.
Note that IPython also supports the pasting of code snippets that have
leading '>>>' and '...' prompts in them. This means that you can paste
doctests from files or docstrings (even if they have leading
whitespace), and the code will execute correctly. You can then use
'%history -t' to see the translated history; this will give you the
input after removal of all the leading prompts and whitespace, which
can be pasted back into an editor.
With these features, you can switch into this mode easily whenever you
need to do testing and changes to doctests, without having to leave
your existing IPython session.
from IPython.utils.ipstruct import Struct
# Shorthands
shell = self.shell
disp_formatter = self.shell.display_formatter
ptformatter = disp_formatter.formatters['text/plain']
# dstore is a data store kept in the instance metadata bag to track any
# changes we make, so we can undo them later.
dstore = shell.meta.setdefault('doctest_mode', Struct())
save_dstore = dstore.setdefault
# save a few values we'll need to recover later
mode = save_dstore('mode', False)
save_dstore('rc_pprint', ptformatter.pprint)
save_dstore('xmode', shell.InteractiveTB.mode)
if mode == False:
# turn on
ptformatter.pprint = False
disp_formatter.active_types = ['text/plain']
shell.magic('xmode Plain')
# turn off
ptformatter.pprint = dstore.rc_pprint
disp_formatter.active_types = dstore.rc_active_types
shell.magic("xmode " + dstore.xmode)
# Store new mode and inform on console
dstore.mode = bool(1-int(mode))
mode_label = ['OFF','ON'][dstore.mode]
print('Doctest mode is:', mode_label)
# Send the payload back so that clients can modify their prompt display
payload = dict(
_find_edit_target = CodeMagics._find_edit_target
def edit(self, parameter_s='', last_call=['','']):
"""Bring up an editor and execute the resulting code.
%edit [options] [args]
%edit runs an external text editor. You will need to set the command for
this editor via the ``TerminalInteractiveShell.editor`` option in your
configuration file before it will work.
This command allows you to conveniently edit multi-line code right in
your IPython session.
If called without arguments, %edit opens up an empty editor with a
temporary file and will execute the contents of this file when you
close it (don't forget to save it!).
-n <number>: open the editor at a specified line number. By default,
the IPython editor hook uses the unix syntax 'editor +N filename', but
you can configure this by providing your own modified hook if your
favorite editor supports line-number specifications with a different
-p: this will call the editor with the same data as the previous time
it was used, regardless of how long ago (in your current session) it
-r: use 'raw' input. This option only applies to input taken from the
user's history. By default, the 'processed' history is used, so that
magics are loaded in their transformed version to valid Python. If
this option is given, the raw input as typed as the command line is
used instead. When you exit the editor, it will be executed by
IPython's own processor.
-x: do not execute the edited code immediately upon exit. This is
mainly useful if you are editing programs which need to be called with
command line arguments, which you can then do using %run.
If arguments are given, the following possibilites exist:
- The arguments are numbers or pairs of colon-separated numbers (like
1 4:8 9). These are interpreted as lines of previous input to be
loaded into the editor. The syntax is the same of the %macro command.
- If the argument doesn't start with a number, it is evaluated as a
variable and its contents loaded into the editor. You can thus edit
any string which contains python code (including the result of
previous edits).
- If the argument is the name of an object (other than a string),
IPython will try to locate the file where it was defined and open the
editor at the point where it is defined. You can use `%edit function`
to load an editor exactly at the point where 'function' is defined,
edit it and have the file be executed automatically.
If the object is a macro (see %macro for details), this opens up your
specified editor with a temporary file containing the macro's data.
Upon exit, the macro is reloaded with the contents of the file.
Note: opening at an exact line is only supported under Unix, and some
editors (like kedit and gedit up to Gnome 2.8) do not understand the
'+NUMBER' parameter necessary for this feature. Good editors like
(X)Emacs, vi, jed, pico and joe all do.
- If the argument is not found as a variable, IPython will look for a
file with that name (adding .py if necessary) and load it into the
editor. It will execute its contents with execfile() when you exit,
loading any code in the file into your interactive namespace.
After executing your code, %edit will return as output the code you
typed in the editor (except when it was an existing file). This way
you can reload the code in further invocations of %edit as a variable,
via _<NUMBER> or Out[<NUMBER>], where <NUMBER> is the prompt number of
the output.
Note that %edit is also available through the alias %ed.
This is an example of creating a simple function inside the editor and
then modifying it. First, start up the editor:
In [1]: ed
Editing... done. Executing edited code...
Out[1]: 'def foo():n print "foo() was defined in an editing session"n'
We can then call the function foo():
In [2]: foo()
foo() was defined in an editing session
Now we edit foo. IPython automatically loads the editor with the
(temporary) file where foo() was previously defined:
In [3]: ed foo
Editing... done. Executing edited code...
And if we call foo() again we get the modified version:
In [4]: foo()
foo() has now been changed!
Here is an example of how to edit a code snippet successive
times. First we call the editor:
In [5]: ed
Editing... done. Executing edited code...
Out[5]: "print 'hello'n"
Now we call it again with the previous output (stored in _):
In [6]: ed _
Editing... done. Executing edited code...
hello world
Out[6]: "print 'hello world'n"
Now we call it with the output #8 (stored in _8, also as Out[8]):
In [7]: ed _8
Editing... done. Executing edited code...
hello again
Out[7]: "print 'hello again'n"
opts,args = self.parse_options(parameter_s,'prn:')
filename, lineno, _ = CodeMagics._find_edit_target(self.shell, args, opts, last_call)
except MacroToEdit as e:
# TODO: Implement macro editing over 2 processes.
print("Macro editing not yet implemented in 2-process model.")
# Make sure we send to the client an absolute path, in case the working
# directory of client and kernel don't match
filename = os.path.abspath(filename)
payload = {
'source' : 'edit_magic',
'filename' : filename,
'line_number' : lineno
# A few magics that are adapted to the specifics of using pexpect and a
# remote terminal
def clear(self, arg_s):
"""Clear the terminal."""
if os.name == 'posix':
if os.name == 'nt':
# This is the usual name in windows
cls = line_magic('cls')(clear)
# Terminal pagers won't work over pexpect, but we do have our own pager
def less(self, arg_s):
"""Show a file through the pager.
Files ending in .py are syntax-highlighted."""
if not arg_s:
raise UsageError('Missing filename.')
cont = open(arg_s).read()
if arg_s.endswith('.py'):
cont = self.shell.pycolorize(openpy.read_py_file(arg_s, skip_encoding_cookie=False))
cont = open(arg_s).read()
more = line_magic('more')(less)
# Man calls a pager, so we also need to redefine it
if os.name == 'posix':
def man(self, arg_s):
"""Find the man page for the given command and display in pager."""
page.page(self.shell.getoutput('man %s | col -b' % arg_s,
def connect_info(self, arg_s):
"""Print information for connecting other clients to this kernel
It will print the contents of this session's connection file, as well as
shortcuts for local clients.
In the simplest case, when called from the most recently launched kernel,
secondary clients can be connected, simply with:
$> ipython <app> --existing
from IPython.core.application import BaseIPythonApplication as BaseIPApp
if BaseIPApp.initialized():
app = BaseIPApp.instance()
security_dir = app.profile_dir.security_dir
profile = app.profile
profile = 'default'
security_dir = ''
connection_file = get_connection_file()
info = get_connection_info(unpack=False)
except Exception as e:
error("Could not get connection info: %r" % e)
# add profile flag for non-default profile
profile_flag = "--profile %s" % profile if profile != 'default' else ""
# if it's in the security dir, truncate to basename
if security_dir == os.path.dirname(connection_file):
connection_file = os.path.basename(connection_file)
print (info + '\n')
print ("Paste the above JSON into a file, and connect with:\n"
" $> ipython <app> --existing <file>\n"
"or, if you are local, you can connect with just:\n"
" $> ipython <app> --existing {0} {1}\n"
"or even just:\n"
" $> ipython <app> --existing {1}\n"
"if this is the most recent IPython session you have started.".format(
connection_file, profile_flag
def qtconsole(self, arg_s):
"""Open a qtconsole connected to this kernel.
Useful for connecting a qtconsole to running notebooks, for better
# %qtconsole should imply bind_kernel for engines:
from IPython.parallel import bind_kernel
except ImportError:
# technically possible, because parallel has higher pyzmq min-version
p = connect_qtconsole(argv=arg_split(arg_s, os.name=='posix'))
except Exception as e:
error("Could not start qtconsole: %r" % e)
def autosave(self, arg_s):
"""Set the autosave interval in the notebook (in seconds).
The default value is 120, or two minutes.
``%autosave 0`` will disable autosave.
This magic only has an effect when called from the notebook interface.
It has no effect when called in a startup file.
interval = int(arg_s)
except ValueError:
raise UsageError("%%autosave requires an integer, got %r" % arg_s)
# javascript wants milliseconds
milliseconds = 1000 * interval
display(Javascript("IPython.notebook.set_autosave_interval(%i)" % milliseconds),
if interval:
print("Autosaving every %i seconds" % interval)
print("Autosave disabled")
class ZMQInteractiveShell(InteractiveShell):
"""A subclass of InteractiveShell for ZMQ."""
displayhook_class = Type(ZMQShellDisplayHook)
display_pub_class = Type(ZMQDisplayPublisher)
data_pub_class = Type(ZMQDataPublisher)
# Override the traitlet in the parent class, because there's no point using
# readline for the kernel. Can be removed when the readline code is moved
# to the terminal frontend.
colors_force = CBool(True)
readline_use = CBool(False)
# autoindent has no meaning in a zmqshell, and attempting to enable it
# will print a warning in the absence of readline.
autoindent = CBool(False)
exiter = Instance(ZMQExitAutocall)
def _exiter_default(self):
return ZMQExitAutocall(self)
def _exit_now_changed(self, name, old, new):
"""stop eventloop when exit_now fires"""
if new:
loop = ioloop.IOLoop.instance()
loop.add_timeout(time.time()+0.1, loop.stop)
keepkernel_on_exit = None
# Over ZeroMQ, GUI control isn't done with PyOS_InputHook as there is no
# interactive input being read; we provide event loop support in ipkernel
def enable_gui(gui):
from .eventloops import enable_gui as real_enable_gui
except ValueError as e:
raise UsageError("%s" % e)
def init_environment(self):
"""Configure the user's environment.
env = os.environ
# These two ensure 'ls' produces nice coloring on BSD-derived systems
env['TERM'] = 'xterm-color'
env['CLICOLOR'] = '1'
# Since normal pagers don't work at all (over pexpect we don't have
# single-key control of the subprocess), try to disable paging in
# subprocesses as much as possible.
env['PAGER'] = 'cat'
env['GIT_PAGER'] = 'cat'
# And install the payload version of page.
def auto_rewrite_input(self, cmd):
"""Called to show the auto-rewritten input for autocall and friends.
FIXME: this payload is currently not correctly processed by the
new = self.prompt_manager.render('rewrite') + cmd
payload = dict(
def ask_exit(self):
"""Engage the exit actions."""
self.exit_now = True
payload = dict(
def _showtraceback(self, etype, evalue, stb):
exc_content = {
u'traceback' : stb,
u'ename' : unicode(etype.__name__),
u'evalue' : py3compat.safe_unicode(evalue),
dh = self.displayhook
# Send exception info over pub socket for other clients than the caller
# to pick up
topic = None
if dh.topic:
topic = dh.topic.replace(b'pyout', b'pyerr')
exc_msg = dh.session.send(dh.pub_socket, u'pyerr', json_clean(exc_content), dh.parent_header, ident=topic)
# FIXME - Hack: store exception info in shell object. Right now, the
# caller is reading this info after the fact, we need to fix this logic
# to remove this hack. Even uglier, we need to store the error status
# here, because in the main loop, the logic that sets it is being
# skipped because runlines swallows the exceptions.
exc_content[u'status'] = u'error'
self._reply_content = exc_content
return exc_content
def set_next_input(self, text):
"""Send the specified text to the frontend to be presented at the next
input cell."""
payload = dict(
# Things related to magics
def init_magics(self):
super(ZMQInteractiveShell, self).init_magics()
self.magics_manager.register_alias('ed', 'edit')