remove another py2 only test
remove another py2 only test

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"""Implementation of namespace-related magic functions.
from __future__ import print_function
# Copyright (c) 2012 The IPython Development Team.
# Distributed under the terms of the Modified BSD License.
# The full license is in the file COPYING.txt, distributed with this software.
# Imports
# Stdlib
import gc
import re
import sys
# Our own packages
from IPython.core import page
from IPython.core.error import StdinNotImplementedError, UsageError
from IPython.core.magic import Magics, magics_class, line_magic
from IPython.testing.skipdoctest import skip_doctest
from IPython.utils.encoding import DEFAULT_ENCODING
from IPython.utils.openpy import read_py_file
from IPython.utils.path import get_py_filename
from IPython.utils.py3compat import unicode_type
# Magic implementation classes
class NamespaceMagics(Magics):
"""Magics to manage various aspects of the user's namespace.
These include listing variables, introspecting into them, etc.
def pinfo(self, parameter_s='', namespaces=None):
"""Provide detailed information about an object.
'%pinfo object' is just a synonym for object? or ?object."""
#print 'pinfo par: <%s>' % parameter_s # dbg
# detail_level: 0 -> obj? , 1 -> obj??
detail_level = 0
# We need to detect if we got called as 'pinfo pinfo foo', which can
# happen if the user types 'pinfo foo?' at the cmd line.
pinfo,qmark1,oname,qmark2 = \
re.match('(pinfo )?(\?*)(.*?)(\??$)',parameter_s).groups()
if pinfo or qmark1 or qmark2:
detail_level = 1
if "*" in oname:
else:'pinfo', oname, detail_level=detail_level,
def pinfo2(self, parameter_s='', namespaces=None):
"""Provide extra detailed information about an object.
'%pinfo2 object' is just a synonym for object?? or ??object."""'pinfo', parameter_s, detail_level=1,
def pdef(self, parameter_s='', namespaces=None):
"""Print the call signature for any callable object.
If the object is a class, print the constructor information.
In [3]: %pdef urllib.urlopen
urllib.urlopen(url, data=None, proxies=None)
"""'pdef',parameter_s, namespaces)
def pdoc(self, parameter_s='', namespaces=None):
"""Print the docstring for an object.
If the given object is a class, it will print both the class and the
constructor docstrings."""'pdoc',parameter_s, namespaces)
def psource(self, parameter_s='', namespaces=None):
"""Print (or run through pager) the source code for an object."""
if not parameter_s:
raise UsageError('Missing object name.')'psource',parameter_s, namespaces)
def pfile(self, parameter_s='', namespaces=None):
"""Print (or run through pager) the file where an object is defined.
The file opens at the line where the object definition begins. IPython
will honor the environment variable PAGER if set, and otherwise will
do its best to print the file in a convenient form.
If the given argument is not an object currently defined, IPython will
try to interpret it as a filename (automatically adding a .py extension
if needed). You can thus use %pfile as a syntax highlighting code
# first interpret argument as an object name
out ='pfile',parameter_s, namespaces)
# if not, try the input as a filename
if out == 'not found':
filename = get_py_filename(parameter_s)
except IOError as msg:
return, skip_encoding_cookie=False)))
def psearch(self, parameter_s=''):
"""Search for object in namespaces by wildcard.
%psearch [options] PATTERN [OBJECT TYPE]
Note: ? can be used as a synonym for %psearch, at the beginning or at
the end: both a*? and ?a* are equivalent to '%psearch a*'. Still, the
rest of the command line must be unchanged (options come first), so
for example the following forms are equivalent
%psearch -i a* function
-i a* function?
?-i a* function
where PATTERN is a string containing * as a wildcard similar to its
use in a shell. The pattern is matched in all namespaces on the
search path. By default objects starting with a single _ are not
matched, many IPython generated objects have a single
underscore. The default is case insensitive matching. Matching is
also done on the attributes of objects and not only on the objects
in a module.
Is the name of a python type from the types module. The name is
given in lowercase without the ending type, ex. StringType is
written string. By adding a type here only objects matching the
given type are matched. Using all here makes the pattern match all
types (this is the default).
-a: makes the pattern match even objects whose names start with a
single underscore. These names are normally omitted from the
-i/-c: make the pattern case insensitive/sensitive. If neither of
these options are given, the default is read from your configuration
file, with the option ``InteractiveShell.wildcards_case_sensitive``.
If this option is not specified in your configuration file, IPython's
internal default is to do a case sensitive search.
-e/-s NAMESPACE: exclude/search a given namespace. The pattern you
specify can be searched in any of the following namespaces:
'builtin', 'user', 'user_global','internal', 'alias', where
'builtin' and 'user' are the search defaults. Note that you should
not use quotes when specifying namespaces.
'Builtin' contains the python module builtin, 'user' contains all
user data, 'alias' only contain the shell aliases and no python
objects, 'internal' contains objects used by IPython. The
'user_global' namespace is only used by embedded IPython instances,
and it contains module-level globals. You can add namespaces to the
search with -s or exclude them with -e (these options can be given
more than once).
%psearch a* -> objects beginning with an a
%psearch -e builtin a* -> objects NOT in the builtin space starting in a
%psearch a* function -> all functions beginning with an a
%psearch re.e* -> objects beginning with an e in module re
%psearch r*.e* -> objects that start with e in modules starting in r
%psearch r*.* string -> all strings in modules beginning with r
Case sensitive search::
%psearch -c a* list all object beginning with lower case a
Show objects beginning with a single _::
%psearch -a _* list objects beginning with a single underscore
except UnicodeEncodeError:
print('Python identifiers can only contain ascii characters.')
# default namespaces to be searched
def_search = ['user_local', 'user_global', 'builtin']
# Process options/args
opts,args = self.parse_options(parameter_s,'cias:e:',list_all=True)
opt = opts.get
shell =
psearch = shell.inspector.psearch
# select case options
if 'i' in opts:
ignore_case = True
elif 'c' in opts:
ignore_case = False
ignore_case = not shell.wildcards_case_sensitive
# Build list of namespaces to search from user options
ns_exclude = ns_exclude=opt('e',[])
ns_search = [nm for nm in def_search if nm not in ns_exclude]
# Call the actual search
def who_ls(self, parameter_s=''):
"""Return a sorted list of all interactive variables.
If arguments are given, only variables of types matching these
arguments are returned.
Define two variables and list them with who_ls::
In [1]: alpha = 123
In [2]: beta = 'test'
In [3]: %who_ls
Out[3]: ['alpha', 'beta']
In [4]: %who_ls int
Out[4]: ['alpha']
In [5]: %who_ls str
Out[5]: ['beta']
user_ns =
user_ns_hidden =
nonmatching = object() # This can never be in user_ns
out = [ i for i in user_ns
if not i.startswith('_') \
and (user_ns[i] is not user_ns_hidden.get(i, nonmatching)) ]
typelist = parameter_s.split()
if typelist:
typeset = set(typelist)
out = [i for i in out if type(user_ns[i]).__name__ in typeset]
return out
def who(self, parameter_s=''):
"""Print all interactive variables, with some minimal formatting.
If any arguments are given, only variables whose type matches one of
these are printed. For example::
%who function str
will only list functions and strings, excluding all other types of
variables. To find the proper type names, simply use type(var) at a
command line to see how python prints type names. For example:
In [1]: type('hello')\\
Out[1]: <type 'str'>
indicates that the type name for strings is 'str'.
``%who`` always excludes executed names loaded through your configuration
file and things which are internal to IPython.
This is deliberate, as typically you may load many modules and the
purpose of %who is to show you only what you've manually defined.
Define two variables and list them with who::
In [1]: alpha = 123
In [2]: beta = 'test'
In [3]: %who
alpha beta
In [4]: %who int
In [5]: %who str
varlist = self.who_ls(parameter_s)
if not varlist:
if parameter_s:
print('No variables match your requested type.')
print('Interactive namespace is empty.')
# if we have variables, move on...
count = 0
for i in varlist:
print(i+'\t', end=' ')
count += 1
if count > 8:
count = 0
def whos(self, parameter_s=''):
"""Like %who, but gives some extra information about each variable.
The same type filtering of %who can be applied here.
For all variables, the type is printed. Additionally it prints:
- For {},[],(): their length.
- For numpy arrays, a summary with shape, number of
elements, typecode and size in memory.
- Everything else: a string representation, snipping their middle if
too long.
Define two variables and list them with whos::
In [1]: alpha = 123
In [2]: beta = 'test'
In [3]: %whos
Variable Type Data/Info
alpha int 123
beta str test
varnames = self.who_ls(parameter_s)
if not varnames:
if parameter_s:
print('No variables match your requested type.')
print('Interactive namespace is empty.')
# if we have variables, move on...
# for these types, show len() instead of data:
seq_types = ['dict', 'list', 'tuple']
# for numpy arrays, display summary info
ndarray_type = None
if 'numpy' in sys.modules:
from numpy import ndarray
except ImportError:
ndarray_type = ndarray.__name__
# Find all variable names and types so we can figure out column sizes
# some types are well known and can be shorter
abbrevs = {'IPython.core.macro.Macro' : 'Macro'}
def type_name(v):
tn = type(v).__name__
return abbrevs.get(tn,tn)
varlist = [[n] for n in varnames]
typelist = []
for vv in varlist:
tt = type_name(vv)
if tt=='instance':
typelist.append( abbrevs.get(str(vv.__class__),
# column labels and # of spaces as separator
varlabel = 'Variable'
typelabel = 'Type'
datalabel = 'Data/Info'
colsep = 3
# variable format strings
vformat = "{0:<{varwidth}}{1:<{typewidth}}"
aformat = "%s: %s elems, type `%s`, %s bytes"
# find the size of the columns to format the output nicely
varwidth = max(max(map(len,varnames)), len(varlabel)) + colsep
typewidth = max(max(map(len,typelist)), len(typelabel)) + colsep
# table header
print(varlabel.ljust(varwidth) + typelabel.ljust(typewidth) + \
' '+datalabel+'\n' + '-'*(varwidth+typewidth+len(datalabel)+1))
# and the table itself
kb = 1024
Mb = 1048576 # kb**2
for vname,var,vtype in zip(varnames,varlist,typelist):
print(vformat.format(vname, vtype, varwidth=varwidth, typewidth=typewidth), end=' ')
if vtype in seq_types:
elif vtype == ndarray_type:
vshape = str(var.shape).replace(',','').replace(' ','x')[1:-1]
if vtype==ndarray_type:
# numpy
vsize = var.size
vbytes = vsize*var.itemsize
vdtype = var.dtype
if vbytes < 100000:
print(aformat % (vshape, vsize, vdtype, vbytes))
print(aformat % (vshape, vsize, vdtype, vbytes), end=' ')
if vbytes < Mb:
print('(%s kb)' % (vbytes/kb,))
print('(%s Mb)' % (vbytes/Mb,))
vstr = str(var)
except UnicodeEncodeError:
vstr = unicode_type(var).encode(DEFAULT_ENCODING,
vstr = "<object with id %d (str() failed)>" % id(var)
vstr = vstr.replace('\n', '\\n')
if len(vstr) < 50:
print(vstr[:25] + "<...>" + vstr[-25:])
def reset(self, parameter_s=''):
"""Resets the namespace by removing all names defined by the user, if
called without arguments, or by removing some types of objects, such
as everything currently in IPython's In[] and Out[] containers (see
the parameters for details).
-f : force reset without asking for confirmation.
-s : 'Soft' reset: Only clears your namespace, leaving history intact.
References to objects may be kept. By default (without this option),
we do a 'hard' reset, giving you a new session and removing all
references to objects from the current session.
in : reset input history
out : reset output history
dhist : reset directory history
array : reset only variables that are NumPy arrays
See Also
reset_selective : invoked as ``%reset_selective``
In [6]: a = 1
In [7]: a
Out[7]: 1
In [8]: 'a' in _ip.user_ns
Out[8]: True
In [9]: %reset -f
In [1]: 'a' in _ip.user_ns
Out[1]: False
In [2]: %reset -f in
Flushing input history
In [3]: %reset -f dhist in
Flushing directory history
Flushing input history
Calling this magic from clients that do not implement standard input,
such as the ipython notebook interface, will reset the namespace
without confirmation.
opts, args = self.parse_options(parameter_s,'sf', mode='list')
if 'f' in opts:
ans = True
ans =
"Once deleted, variables cannot be recovered. Proceed (y/[n])?",
except StdinNotImplementedError:
ans = True
if not ans:
print('Nothing done.')
if 's' in opts: # Soft reset
user_ns =
for i in self.who_ls():
elif len(args) == 0: # Hard reset = False)
# reset in/out/dhist/array: previously extensinions/
ip =
user_ns = # local lookup, heavily used
for target in args:
target = target.lower() # make matches case insensitive
if target == 'out':
print("Flushing output cache (%d entries)" % len(user_ns['_oh']))
elif target == 'in':
print("Flushing input history")
pc = + 1
for n in range(1, pc):
key = '_i'+repr(n)
hm = ip.history_manager
# don't delete these, as %save and %macro depending on the
# length of these lists to be preserved
hm.input_hist_parsed[:] = [''] * pc
hm.input_hist_raw[:] = [''] * pc
# hm has internal machinery for _i,_ii,_iii, clear it out
hm._i = hm._ii = hm._iii = hm._i00 = u''
elif target == 'array':
# Support cleaning up numpy arrays
from numpy import ndarray
# This must be done with items and not iteritems because
# we're going to modify the dict in-place.
for x,val in list(user_ns.items()):
if isinstance(val,ndarray):
del user_ns[x]
except ImportError:
print("reset array only works if Numpy is available.")
elif target == 'dhist':
print("Flushing directory history")
del user_ns['_dh'][:]
print("Don't know how to reset ", end=' ')
print(target + ", please run `%reset?` for details")
def reset_selective(self, parameter_s=''):
"""Resets the namespace by removing names defined by the user.
Input/Output history are left around in case you need them.
%reset_selective [-f] regex
No action is taken if regex is not included
-f : force reset without asking for confirmation.
See Also
reset : invoked as ``%reset``
We first fully reset the namespace so your output looks identical to
this example for pedagogical reasons; in practice you do not need a
full reset::
In [1]: %reset -f
Now, with a clean namespace we can make a few variables and use
``%reset_selective`` to only delete names that match our regexp::
In [2]: a=1; b=2; c=3; b1m=4; b2m=5; b3m=6; b4m=7; b2s=8
In [3]: who_ls
Out[3]: ['a', 'b', 'b1m', 'b2m', 'b2s', 'b3m', 'b4m', 'c']
In [4]: %reset_selective -f b[2-3]m
In [5]: who_ls
Out[5]: ['a', 'b', 'b1m', 'b2s', 'b4m', 'c']
In [6]: %reset_selective -f d
In [7]: who_ls
Out[7]: ['a', 'b', 'b1m', 'b2s', 'b4m', 'c']
In [8]: %reset_selective -f c
In [9]: who_ls
Out[9]: ['a', 'b', 'b1m', 'b2s', 'b4m']
In [10]: %reset_selective -f b
In [11]: who_ls
Out[11]: ['a']
Calling this magic from clients that do not implement standard input,
such as the ipython notebook interface, will reset the namespace
without confirmation.
opts, regex = self.parse_options(parameter_s,'f')
if 'f' in opts:
ans = True
ans =
"Once deleted, variables cannot be recovered. Proceed (y/[n])? ",
except StdinNotImplementedError:
ans = True
if not ans:
print('Nothing done.')
user_ns =
if not regex:
print('No regex pattern specified. Nothing done.')
m = re.compile(regex)
except TypeError:
raise TypeError('regex must be a string or compiled pattern')
for i in self.who_ls():
def xdel(self, parameter_s=''):
"""Delete a variable, trying to clear it from anywhere that
IPython's machinery has references to it. By default, this uses
the identity of the named object in the user namespace to remove
references held under other names. The object is also removed
from the output history.
-n : Delete the specified name from all namespaces, without
checking their identity.
opts, varname = self.parse_options(parameter_s,'n')
try:, ('n' in opts))
except (NameError, ValueError) as e:
print(type(e).__name__ +": "+ str(e))